Does marijuana hurt or help your brain? Scientists rush to study the drug's impact
2019-07-10 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: All this week, we're lookingat the impact of the wave of marijuana legalization.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:本周,我们正在研究大麻合法化浪潮的影响。

One of the key questions is whether marijuanais generally more potent now and whether that(2)
其中一个关键问题是大麻现在通常是否更有效以及是否更有效

poses an increased health risk for some people.(3)
对某些人来说,健康风险增加。

It's also coming amid debates surroundingthe larger benefits and risks of marijuana.(4)
在围绕大麻的巨大利益和风险的辩论中也出现了这种情况。

For our Leading Edge segment, Miles O'Briensifts through the science around what's known(5)
对于我们的前沿部分,Miles O'Brien围绕着已知的科学进行筛选

and not known about these claims.(6)
并且不了解这些说法。

It's part of a close look at The Green Rusharound the country.(7)
这是全国各地The Green Rush的一部分。

MILES O'BRIEN: For connoisseurs of cannabis,these are heady times indeed.(8)
MILES O'BRIEN:对于大麻鉴赏家来说,这些确实令人兴奋。

MAN: It's pretty much like Toys 'R' Us foradults now.(9)
男:现在和成年人玩具'R'Us非常相似。

MILES O'BRIEN: We caught up with Levon ata jammed dispensary in Leicester, Massachusetts.(10)
MILES O'BRIEN:我们在马萨诸塞州莱斯特市一个堵塞的药房赶上了Levon。

He had just bought some cannabis oil and apre-rolled joint.(11)
他刚刚买了一些大麻油和一个预卷联合。

MAN: No one really gets in trouble with this.(12)
男:没有人真的遇到麻烦。

So, it's nice not being hassled and thingslike that just for smoking weed.(13)
因此,不仅仅是因为吸食杂草而被麻烦的事情也很好。

MILES O'BRIEN: The state is among 11 and theDistrict of Columbia that have legalized recreational(14)
MILES O'BRIEN:该州是11个州和哥伦比亚特区的娱乐场所合法化

use of marijuana for those 21 and older.(15)
21岁及以上的人使用大麻。

MAN: Can't complain there one bit.(16)
男:不能抱怨一下。

Looking forward to enjoying this when I gethome.(17)
我回到家的时候期待着享受这一切。

MILES O'BRIEN: Massachusetts is among 47 statesthat have sanctioned cannabis for medical(18)
MILES O'BRIEN:马萨诸塞州是47个已批准用于医疗的大麻的国家之一

purposes as well.(19)
目的也是。

It's a stark contrast from the days of reefermadness, the war on drugs and the vilification(20)
这与冷藏疯狂,毒品战争和诽谤的日子形成鲜明对比

of a plant that humans have used for morethan 2500 years, precious little of it informed(21)
一种人类已经使用超过2500年的植物,其中很少见

by research.(22)
通过研究。

RONALD REAGAN, President of the United States:What an insult it will be to what we are and(23)
RONALD REAGAN,美国总统:对我们现在和将来的侮辱是什么

whence we came if we do not rise up togetherin defiance against this cancer of drugs.(24)
我们是从哪里来的,如果我们不一起起来反抗这种毒品的癌症。

DR.(25)
DR。

STACI GRUBER, Harvard Medical School: It wasmuch more motivated by sociopolitical pressures,(26)
哈佛医学院的STACI GRUBER:受社会政治压力的影响更大,

if you will, not a ton of real scientificdata.(27)
如果你愿意的话,不是一大堆真实的科学数据。

A lot of assumptions were made.(28)
做了很多假设。

MILES O'BRIEN: Neuroscientist Staci Gruberis an associate professor of psychiatry at(29)
MILES O'BRIEN:神经科学家Staci Gruber是精神病学副教授

Harvard Medical School and director of theMarijuana Investigations for Neuroscientific(30)
哈佛医学院和大麻神经科学研究所所长

Discovery Program at McLean Hospital.(31)
麦克莱恩医院的探索计划。

She has been studying how cannabis affectsthe human brain for more than two decades.(32)
二十多年来,她一直在研究大麻如何影响人类大脑。

DR.(33)
DR。

STACI GRUBER: We're still playing catchupin terms of trying to understand what we really(34)
STACI GRUBER:在试图了解我们的真实情况方面,我们仍然在追赶

need to understand about cannabis and cannabinoidsand how they work.(35)
需要了解大麻和大麻素以及它们的工作原理。

MILES O'BRIEN: She's doing her best to fillthe gaps of understanding by imaging the brains(36)
MILES O'BRIEN:她正在尽最大努力通过对大脑进行成像填补理解空白

of teens and emerging adults, some heavy cannabisusers who started very young, and others who(37)
青少年和新兴成年人,一些非常年轻的重型大麻使用者和其他人

are weed-free.(38)
没有杂草。

When they conduct cognitive tests, their brainslook very different.(39)
当他们进行认知测试时,他们的大脑看起来非常不同。

They use different regions to get the jobdone.(40)
他们使用不同的地区来完成工作。

DR.(41)
DR。

STACI GRUBER: These patterns of activationssuggest there is really something different(42)
STACI GRUBER:这些激活模式表明存在着不同的东西

in the way they're processing the information.(43)
在他们处理信息的方式。

MILES O'BRIEN: The data suggests that heavyrecreational use of cannabis during adolescence(44)
MILES O'BRIEN:数据显示青少年期间大量娱乐性使用大麻

and emerging adulthood inhibits the developmentof the prefrontal cortex, the decision-making(45)
而新兴的成年期抑制了前额皮质的发展,决策

center of the brain.(46)
大脑的中心。

And Gruber also reports evidence of changesin the white matter, which connects various(47)
格鲁伯还报告了白质变化的证据,这种变化连接了各种各样的物质

regions of the brain.(48)
大脑区域。

The white matter in pot users is less organizedand coherent.(49)
锅用户中的白质不太有条理和连贯。

These individuals also self-report more impulsivebehavior.(50)
这些人也会自我报告更多的冲动行为。

DR.(51)
DR。

STACI GRUBER: We know some things, for sure.(52)
STACI GRUBER:我们肯定知道一些事情。

We know that there are likely negative effectsif cannabis becomes a regular part of one's(53)
我们知道,如果大麻成为一个人的常规部分,可能会产生负面影响

routine when we're neurodevelopmentally vulnerable.(54)
当我们神经发育脆弱的时候。

That is, we're just still growing up, we'reunder construction, or half-baked, better(55)
也就是说,我们还在成长,我们正在建设中,或者半生不熟,更好

way to put it.(56)
把它放的方式。

MILES O'BRIEN: And the pot is much strongerthan it was a generation ago, when it contained,(57)
MILES O'BRIEN:这个底池比一代人强大得多,当它包含时,

on average, about 5 percent THC, the psychoactivemain ingredient in marijuana.(58)
平均而言,大约5%的THC是大麻中的精神活性主要成分。

Today, the plants themselves have been bredto be much more potent, 12 percent THC on(59)
今天,植物本身已被培育成更强大的,THC为12%

average.(60)
平均。

Strains over 20 percent are widely available.(61)
超过20%的菌株广泛可用。

But that is still not enough for Dario andhis friends.(62)
但对于达里奥和他的朋友来说,这仍然不够。

They frequently use highly concentrated cannabisproducts known as shatter, oil and wax with(63)
他们经常使用高度浓缩的大麻产品,称为粉碎,油和蜡

average THC levels of more than 50 percent,up to 80 percent and even higher.(64)
平均THC水平超过50%,高达80%甚至更高。

They prefer the concentrates in part becausethey get more buzz for their buck.(65)
他们更喜欢浓缩物,因为它们可以获得更多的嗡嗡声。

MAN: The high is a little different, I wouldsay.(66)
男:我想说,高点有点不同。

And you definitely get, like, higher off ofthe oil, which is enjoyable, for sure.(67)
你肯定会得到更高的油量,这是令人愉快的,当然。

MILES O'BRIEN: But what are the consequencesof this high-test high?(68)
MILES O'BRIEN:但这次高考高的后果是什么?

The data is scant.(69)
数据很少。

DR.(70)
DR。

STACI GRUBER: Do they simply use less of amore potent product to get the same effect?(71)
STACI GRUBER:他们只是使用较少的更有效的产品来达到同样的效果吗?

And some studies have actually reported that,and some others have reported not so much.(72)
有些研究实际上已经报道了,其他一些研究报告的并不多。

So, I think that's a type of investigationI would very much like to see done.(73)
所以,我认为这是一种我非常希望看到的调查。

MILES O'BRIEN: Important, but right now impossible.(74)
MILES O'BRIEN:很重要,但现在不可能。

Despite the trend toward legalization by thestates, marijuana is still classified by the(75)
尽管各州合法化的趋势,大麻仍被归类为

federal government as a Schedule 1 drug, meaningit supposedly has no currently accepted medical(76)
联邦政府作为附表1药物,意味着它目前没有接受医疗

use and a high potential for abuse.(77)
使用和滥用的可能性很高。

This makes it very difficult for researchersto do their work legally.(78)
这使得研究人员很难合法地开展工作。

Cannabis used in scientific studies must beacquired from a government-sanctioned grow(79)
科学研究中使用的大麻必须从政府批准的成长中获得

site at the University of Mississippi.(80)
密西西比大学的网站。

And it only produces flower, not the high-concentrateproducts.(81)
它只生产花卉,而不是高浓缩产品。

There is an urgent need to do this science.(82)
迫切需要做这门科学。

Dost Ongur is chief of the Psychotic DisordersDivision at McLean Hospital.(83)
Dost Ongur是麦克莱恩医院精神病患者的主任。

DR.(84)
DR。

DOST ONGUR, McLean Hospital: Research is showingthat if you're smoking weed that is high in(85)
DOST ONGUR,麦克莱恩医院:研究表明,如果你吸食的是高浓度的杂草

THC, the odds of developing a psychotic disorderare higher than if you're smoking weed that's(86)
THC,发生精神病的几率高于你吸食杂草的可能性

low in THC.(87)
THC低。

There is a lot of compelling evidence, butit's not necessarily final.(88)
有很多令人信服的证据,但它不一定是最终的。

MILES O'BRIEN: They're seeking clues by studyingthe way our nervous system interacts with(89)
MILES O'BRIEN:他们通过研究我们的神经系统与之相互作用的方式来寻找线索

cannabis.(90)
大麻。

The internal wiring that regulates our perceptionsand thoughts is not continuous.(91)
调节我们的感知和思想的内部布线不是连续的。

The nerve ends are called neurons, the gapssynapses.(92)
神经末梢称为神经元,间隙突触。

The electrical current is transmitted acrossthe synapses by chemical messengers called(93)
被称为化学信使的电流通过突触传递

neurotransmitters.(94)
神经递质。

Our bodies naturally produce cannabinoidsto help regulate the flow of these neurotransmitters.(95)
我们的身体自然产生大麻素,以帮助调节这些神经递质的流动。

DR.(96)
DR。

DOST ONGUR: So, when somebody smokes cannabis,you are actually introducing chemicals that(97)
DOST ONGUR:所以,当有人抽大麻时,你实际上是在吸引大麻

can hijack that system that's controllingbrain chemistry.(98)
可以劫持那个控制大脑化学的系统。

It appears that, during some critical periodin brain development, cannabis has this effect(99)
看来,在大脑发育的某个关键时期,大麻具有这种效果

on the brain that actually disrupts normalfunctioning and predisposes people to a psychotic(100)
在大脑上实际上破坏了正常功能并使人易患精神病

disorder, whereas, in your 30s, it doesn'thave the same effect.(101)
紊乱,而在你30多岁时,它没有同样的效果。

MILES O'BRIEN: In all of this research, it'sdifficult, if not impossible, to tease apart(102)
MILES O'BRIEN:在所有这些研究中,即使不是不可能,也很难分开

cause and effect.(103)
因果。

Does cannabis trigger these disorders, ordo people with these problems gravitate toward(104)
大麻是否会引发这些疾病,或者这些问题的人会被吸引

the drug?(105)
毒品?

And no one has taken a look at the implicationsof long-term recreational cannabis use on(106)
没有人看过长期休闲大麻使用的影响

the fully formed adult brain.(107)
完全成熟的成年人大脑。

But, recently, Staci Gruber has taken a lookat medical marijuana among adults.(108)
但是,最近,Staci Gruber已经开始研究成年人的医用大麻。

And she has some surprising conclusions.(109)
她有一些令人惊讶的结论。

DR.(110)
DR。

STACI GRUBER: We're seeing improvements incognitive performance, specifically on tasks(111)
STACI GRUBER:我们看到认知表现有所改善,特别是在任务方面

requiring executive function.(112)
需要执行功能。

We're also seeing improvements in clinicalstate, so significantly lower levels of depressive(113)
我们也看到了临床状态的改善,因此抑郁水平明显降低

symptoms after only three months.(114)
仅三个月后出现症状。

And, really important, we have seen some verystriking decreases in the use of conventional(115)
而且,非常重要的是,我们已经看到常规使用的一些非常显着的减少

medications.(116)
药物。

MILES O'BRIEN: Benefits, as opposed to thedetriments she has documented in young people(117)
MILES O'BRIEN:与她在年轻人中记录的损害相反的好处

using pot heavily to just get high.(118)
大量使用锅来升高。

Steve Mandile is a regular medical marijuanauser.(119)
Steve Mandile是一名普通的医用大麻用户。

STEPHEN MANDILE, Medical Marijuana User: Muchbetter.(120)
STEPHEN MANDILE,医用大麻用户:好多了。

MILES O'BRIEN: In 2004, while serving in theArmy in Iraq, he got in an accident that left(121)
MILES O'BRIEN:2004年,在伊拉克军队任职期间,他遇到了一场意外事故

him with an excruciating back injury and along list of prescription painkillers.(122)
他背部受伤很严重,还有一长串处方止痛药。

STEVE MANDILE: Over a 10-year period, I hadtaken 57 different medications, nine different(123)
STEVE MANDILE:在10年的时间里,我服用了57种不同的药物,其中9种不同

opioids.(124)
阿片类药物。

I believe, in 2009, I was just getting onto fentanyl.(125)
我相信,在2009年,我刚刚接触芬太尼。

I did six years on fentanyl, oxycodone formy chronic pain and then breakthrough pain.(126)
我做了六年芬太尼,羟考酮治疗慢性疼痛,然后突破性疼痛。

MILES O'BRIEN: It was a struggle, but he finallyweaned himself off of opioids, and now relies(127)
MILES O'BRIEN:这是一场斗争,但他终于脱离了阿片类药物,现在依赖它

mostly on medical marijuana, which, unlikethose prescription painkillers, has never(128)
主要是医用大麻,与那些处方止痛药不同,它从来没有

caused an overdose death.(129)
导致过量死亡。

But government studies show 9 percent of thosewho use marijuana will become dependent on(130)
但政府研究表明,使用大麻的人中有9%会依赖大麻

the drug, much better than alcohol, at about23 percent, or cocaine, 21 percent.(131)
这种药物比酒精好得多,约占23%,可卡因占21%。

But it is not risk-free.(132)
但它不是无风险的。

Steve Mandile is well aware of all of this,but remains convinced cannabis has made nearly(133)
史蒂夫曼迪尔很清楚所有这一切,但仍然相信大麻已经取得了相当大的成就

every aspect of his life better.(134)
他生活的方方面面都比较好。

STEVE MANDILE: Every person suffering deservesa choice.(135)
STEVE MANDILE:每个受苦的人都值得选择。

And let's stop looking at this as the initialidea back in the '30s, where this is something(136)
让我们不再把这看作是30年代的初步想法,这就是这个问题

that's terrible, it's going to ruin the world.(137)
那太可怕了,它会毁了这个世界。

Let's get past all the stigma.(138)
让我们过去所有的耻辱。

Let's focus on the facts.(139)
让我们关注事实。

MILES O'BRIEN: Once vilified, but now movinginto the mainstream, cannabis is neither totally(140)
MILES O'BRIEN:一旦被诋毁,但现在进入主流,大麻既不是完全的

bad, nor completely benign.(141)
坏,也不完全是良性的。

It turns out weed is as much about shadesof gray as it is green.(142)
事实证明,杂草与灰色阴影一样多,因为它是绿色的。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Miles O'Brienin Boston.(143)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,我是波士顿的Miles O'Brien。


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