How Americans can change their mindset about wasting food
2019-11-28 00:00:00


AMNA NAWAZ: On a day when families acrossthe country gather for a Thanksgiving meal,(1)
AMNA NAWAZ:在全国各地的家庭聚集感恩节大餐的那天,

it's worth noting that, over the next 12 months,the average American household of four will(2)
值得注意的是,在接下来的12个月中,美国平均四口之家将

spend roughly $1,800 on food they never eat.(3)
在他们从未吃过的食物上花费大约1800美元。

Special correspondent Allison Aubrey of NPRtalks to scientist and cookbook author Dana(4)
NPR的特别通讯员Allison Aubrey与科学家和食谱作者Dana进行了对话

Gunders about why Americans waste so muchin the kitchen.(5)
关于为什么美国人在厨房浪费这么多的想法。

And she gets some lessons on how to cut thoselosses.(6)
她还获得了如何减少损失的一些经验教训。

It's the latest in our special series on foodwaste.(7)
这是我们有关食物浪费的特别系列中的最新内容。

ALLISON AUBREY: Celebrity chefs share tricksof the trade, how to waste less in the kitchen.(8)
ALLISON AUBREY:名人厨师分享技巧,如何减少厨房浪费。

It's part of a 20-city tour under way theJames Beard Foundation kicked off here in(9)
这是詹姆斯·比尔德基金会(James Beard Foundation)在这里发起的20个城市巡回演出的一部分

New York City.(10)
纽约市。

WOMAN: One of our key priorities is the reductionof food waste.(11)
女人:我们的主要优先事项之一是减少食物浪费。

ALLISON AUBREY: Esther Choi is chef and ownerof Mokbar, a Korean restaurant in Brooklyn.(12)
ALLISON AUBREY:Esther Choi是布鲁克林一家韩国餐厅Mokbar的厨师兼老板。

Tonight, she serves up a traditional Koreanrice dish she calls Buddha Bibimbap.(13)
今晚,她提供了一种传统的韩国米饭,称为佛陀石锅拌饭。

ESTHER CHOI, Owner, Mokbar: So all the vegetablesare dehydrated.(14)
Mokbar店主ESTHER CHOI:因此,所有蔬菜都已脱水。

They will last like a year.(15)
他们将持续一年。

So it's a great way to not waste, like, extravegetables.(16)
因此,这是不浪费多余蔬菜的好方法。

ALLISON AUBREY: And what's the easiest wayto do that?(17)
ALLISON AUBREY:这样做最简单的方法是什么?

ESTHER CHOI: If you just turn on your ovenat like 150 to 200 degrees and leave the vegetables(18)
ESTHER CHOI:如果您只是以150至200度的温度打开烤箱,然后放蔬菜

overnight, then they will dry up.(19)
过夜,然后它们会干dry。

ALLISON AUBREY: Teaching people how to dothis at home is the goal.(20)
ALLISON AUBREY:教人们在家中如何做到这一点是目标。

MAN: So what I have here are some herbs thatwould normally be wasted.(21)
男:所以我这里有一些通常会被浪费的草药。

ALLISON AUBREY: The foundation has launcheda social media blitz, with chefs online and(22)
ALLISON AUBREY:该基金会发起了一场社交媒体大战,厨师在线和

Instagram cooking up waste-free recipes.(23)
Instagram烹饪无浪费的食谱。

And the Beard Foundation is not alone in itseffort.(24)
而胡子基金会并不是唯一一个努力的人。

DANA GUNDERS, Next Course: We waste 50 percentmore food today than we did in the 1970s.(25)
DANA GUNDERS,下一门课程:与1970年代相比,今天我们浪费的食物多50%。

ALLISON AUBREY: Dana Gunders, who authoreda report in 2012 quantifying just how much(26)
ALLISON AUBREY:Dana Gunders,他在2012年撰写了一份报告,量化了多少

food goes to waste, says there's a reasonwhy consumers need to be part of the conversation.(27)
食物浪费了,这是有原因的,那就是为什么消费者需要参与对话。

DANA GUNDERS: We, in our homes, actually makeup the biggest source of all the food that(28)
DANA GUNDERS:实际上,我们在家中构成了所有食物的最大来源

is going to waste.(29)
会浪费。

ALLISON AUBREY: Forty-three percent of thefood that Americans waste each year comes(30)
ALLISON AUBREY:美国人每年浪费的食物中有43%来自

from what we toss at home.(31)
从我们在家折腾。

That's double the 18 percent that restaurantswaste and the 16 percent grocery stores throw(32)
这是餐厅浪费的18%和杂货店扔的16%的两倍

out.(33)
出来。

All told, America's food waste bill adds upto $218 billion.(34)
总而言之,美国的食物浪费法案总计达2180亿美元。

According to the USDA, this would be akinto filling the Willis Tower in Chicago about(35)
根据美国农业部的说法,这类似于在芝加哥填满威利斯大厦

44 times.(36)
44次。

When food rots, it releases methane gas.(37)
食物腐烂时会释放出甲烷气体。

And climate change experts estimate that foodwaste is responsible for up to 10 percent(38)
而且气候变化专家估计,食物浪费占到了10%

of greenhouse gas emissions.(39)
温室气体排放量。

So, according to many scientists, reducingit is one of the most effective things each(40)
因此,根据许多科学家的说法,减少排放量是每项措施中最有效的措施之一

of us can do.(41)
我们可以做到。

Changing the way we shop and cook can makea difference.(42)
改变我们的购物和烹饪方式可能会有所作为。

DANA GUNDERS: Beets, if you buy them in abunch, you can actually use those beet greens,(43)
DANA GUNDERS:甜菜,如果您成堆购买,则可以实际使用这些甜菜果岭,

cut them up, and saute them.(44)
切碎,然后炒。

ALLISON AUBREY: Here's Gunders at Google'sheadquarters sharing some hacks with employees(45)
ALLISON AUBREY:这是Google总部的Gunders与员工分享了一些技巧

at lunchtime.(46)
在午餐时间。

She advises corporations and grocery chainson strategies to manage food waste.(47)
她为公司和食品杂货连锁店提供管理食物浪费的策略方面的建议。

And she's also written the "Waste Free KitchenHandbook."(48)
她还写了《无浪费厨房手册》。

It's full of ways to repurpose food you mighthave thrown out.(49)
它充满了重新利用可能丢掉的食物的方法。

She joined us in the kitchen to show us oneof her favorite food waste kitchen hacks.(50)
她加入我们的厨房,向我们展示了她最喜欢的食物浪费厨房技巧之一。

DANA GUNDERS: One of the things I hate wastingthe most are avocados.(51)
DANA GUNDERS:我最讨厌浪费的一件事是鳄梨。

ALLISON AUBREY: Ah, look at that.(52)
ALLISON AUBREY:啊,看那个。

It's really gooey and dark.(53)
真的很黑。

You're not going to eat that, are you?(54)
你不会吃的,是吗?

DANA GUNDERS: It's totally fine to eat.(55)
DANA GUNDERS:很好吃。

The browning is just from enzymes in the fruit.(56)
褐变只是来自水果中的酶。

So, what I like to do is use it in a chocolatemousse.(57)
因此,我想在巧克力慕斯中使用它。

ALLISON AUBREY: Ooh, that sounds good.(58)
ALLISON AUBREY:哦,听起来不错。

DANA GUNDERS: The cocoa really covers thatup.(59)
DANA GUNDERS:可可真的掩盖了一切。

Take your avocados.(60)
吃鳄梨。

Stick them in a food processor.(61)
将它们放在食物处理器中。

ALLISON AUBREY: Then we added five other simpleingredients, cocoa powder, milk, vanilla,(62)
ALLISON AUBREY:然后我们添加了其他五种简单的成分,可可粉,牛奶,香草,

salt, and maple syrup.(63)
盐和枫糖浆。

So, it is going to taste like dessert?(64)
那么,它会尝起来像甜点吗?

DANA GUNDERS: It will, I promise.(65)
DANA GUNDERS:我保证。

ALLISON AUBREY: Gunders says a large partof the food waste problem here in the U.S.(66)
ALLISON AUBREY:Gunders说,美国的食物浪费问题很大一部分

is cultural.(67)
是文化的。

DANA GUNDERS: If I walk down the street todayand throw some food on the ground, people(68)
DANA GUNDERS:如果今天我走在街上并在地面上扔一些食物,人们

would think I'm crazy.(69)
会以为我疯了。

But if I throw that same food in the garbagecan, people wouldn't think much of it.(70)
但是,如果我把同样的食物扔进垃圾桶,人们不会想太多。

And I think that signals the cultural acceptabilitywe have right now for food going to waste.(71)
而且我认为,这标志着我们现在对于浪费食物所具有的文化接受性。

ALLISON AUBREY: She points to Great Britainas an example of a country that's put a dent(72)
ALLISON AUBREY:她以英国为例,说明该国已陷入困境

in the cultural acceptance of food waste.(73)
在文化上接受食物浪费。

WOMAN: Fifty percent of the waste comes fromthe house.(74)
女人:百分之五十的垃圾来自屋子。

So we have a huge responsibility to sort ofcurb the waste culture.(75)
因此,我们负有遏制废物文化的巨大责任。

ALLISON AUBREY: The British are spending millionson a decades-long national campaign called(76)
ALLISON AUBREY:英国人花费数百万美元进行长达数十年的全国性运动

Love Food, Hate Waste.(77)
喜欢食物,讨厌浪费。

Events to raise awareness showcase chefs thatcook up leftovers at public events throughout(78)
旨在提高知名度的活动展示了厨师们在整个公共活动中烹饪剩菜的过程

the U.K.(79)
英国

And the result?(80)
结果呢?

Consumer food waste fell by 18 percent inGreat Britain between 2007 and 2015.(81)
在2007年至2015年间,英国的消费食品废物减少了18%。

DANA GUNDERS: It's created a culture wherethe cool thing to do, the right thing to do,(82)
DANA GUNDERS:它创造了一种文化,在这里,要做的事情很酷,要做的事情正确,

the expected thing to do for businesses isto reduce their own waste and help their consumers(83)
企业要做的是减少自己的浪费并帮助消费者

reduce waste as well.(84)
减少浪费。

ALLISON AUBREY: Here in the U.S., three federalagencies have set strategies to help tackle(85)
ALLISON AUBREY:在美国,三个联邦机构制定了战略来帮助解决

food waste, including new efforts to measureand track the problem.(86)
食物浪费,包括衡量和跟踪问题的新努力。

And at the end of 2018, Congress allocatedalmost $30 million for grants to states to(87)
到2018年底,国会拨款近3,000万美元给各州

bolster composting and food waste recoveryprograms.(88)
支持堆肥和食物垃圾回收计划。

Gunders says all this is good, and given howmuch we waste in our own homes, a cultural(89)
贡德斯说,这一切都很好,鉴于我们在自己家里浪费了多少,

shift in our attitudes and in our habits isimportant too.(90)
改变态度和习惯也很重要。

DANA GUNDERS: It is really difficult to changepolicy and have that change a culture.(91)
DANA GUNDERS:改变政策和改变文化确实非常困难。

But when you look at campaigns like seat belts...(92)
但是,当您查看安全带之类的活动时...

NARRATOR: Safety belts for dummies or people.(93)
旁白:假人或人的安全带。

DANA GUNDERS: ... or littering or Smokey theBear...(94)
DANA GUNDERS:...乱扔垃圾或Smokey the Bear ...

ACTOR: Having a campfire means we have tobe responsible.(95)
演员:营火意味着我们必须负责。

DANA GUNDERS: ... there is a way for the federalgovernment to support a cultural shift through(96)
DANA GUNDERS:...联邦政府有一种方法可以通过

large campaigns around the country.(97)
全国各地的大型运动。

And we have not seen them support a campaignaround reducing food waste yet.(98)
而且我们还没有看到他们支持减少食物浪费的运动。

And voila.(99)
和瞧。

ALLISON AUBREY: All right.(100)
ALLISON AUBREY:好的。

Looks like chocolate mousse.(101)
看起来像巧克力慕斯。

DANA GUNDERS: Ready to try some?(102)
DANA GUNDERS:准备尝试一些吗?

ALLISON AUBREY: Absolutely.(103)
ALLISON AUBREY:好的。

It does not taste avocado at all.(104)
它根本没有鳄梨的味道。

It almost tastes like buttery or creamy.(105)
它几乎尝起来像黄油或奶油。

DANA GUNDERS: What's amazing is, the avocadoactually takes the place of the butter and(106)
DANA GUNDERS:令人惊讶的是,鳄梨实际上代替了黄油,

cream, and so it's much healthier for you.(107)
霜,所以对您来说更健康。

ALLISON AUBREY: I'm Allison Aubrey of NPRNews, cooking for the "PBS NewsHour" in San(108)
ALLISON AUBREY:我是NPR News的Allison Aubrey,为San的“ PBS NewsHour”做饭

Francisco.(109)
弗朗西斯科。


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