Why 36 million American adults can't read enough to work — and how to help them
2019-06-11 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Adults often go back to schoolto get a better-paying job.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:成年人经常回到学校去获得薪水更高的工作。

But one important and often overlooked segmentof the population are those who struggle to(2)
但是,一个重要的,经常被忽视的人群是那些努力奋斗的人

read or do basic math.(3)
阅读或做基本数学。

They can't read a street sign, a pay stubor a menu.(4)
他们无法阅读路牌,工资单或菜单。

Every year, thousands of these individualsovercome shame and fear and go back to school.(5)
每年,成千上万的这些人克服羞耻和恐惧,回到学校。

But inadequate funding and long waiting listshave made their struggles even harder.(6)
但资金不足和等待时间长,使他们的斗争更加艰难。

Maine is one of the few states where the governorhas proposed increasing funding for adult(7)
缅因州是州长提议增加成人资金的少数几个州之一

education.(8)
教育。

Special correspondent Kavitha Cardoza of ourpartner Education Week reports on those efforts.(9)
我们合作伙伴教育周的特约记者Kavitha Cardoza报道了这些努力。

It's part of our regular segment, Making theGrade.(10)
这是我们常规细分,制作成绩的一部分。

CAROL PALMER, Adult Learner: The two-digitnumbers from my -- by my...(11)
CAROL PALMER,成人学习者:来自我的两位数数字 - 由我...

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Carol Palmer is 63.(12)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Carol Palmer现年63岁。

She graduated high school years ago, eventhough she couldn't read or write.(13)
她几年前高中毕业,即使她不会读或写。

CAROL PALMER: I always read backwards.(14)
CAROL PALMER:我总是向后看。

And I ended up going to special ed class becauseI couldn't do the work, and I didn't get no(15)
最后我去了特殊的ed课程,因为我无法完成这项工作,而且我没有得到

help to do it.(16)
帮助做到这一点。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Palmer developed severalcoping skills to hide the fact she couldn't(17)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Palmer开发了几种应对技巧来隐藏她无法做到的事实

read.(18)
读。

CAROL PALMER: If I went to, like, the grocerystore and I couldn't know how to spell peas,(19)
CAROL PALMER:如果我去了杂货店,我不知道怎么拼豌豆,

I would find a picture, and then I would knowit was that.(20)
我会找到一张照片,然后我会知道那是。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Gail Senese heads adult educationin Maine.(21)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Gail Senese领导缅因州的成人教育。

She says a lot of people hide the fact theycan't read.(22)
她说很多人都隐瞒了他们无法阅读的事实。

They're so ashamed.(23)
他们很惭愧。

GAIL SENESE, State Director, Maine Adult EducationPrograms: We have had students who didn't(24)
GAIL SENESE,缅因州成人教育计划的国家主任:我们有没有学生

even want to tell a spouse for years thatthey were kind of faking it.(25)
甚至想多年来告诉配偶他们有点假装。

No, I don't like to read.(26)
不,我不喜欢读。

I would rather watch television.(27)
我宁愿看电视。

Or you pay the bills.(28)
或者你支付账单。

It's just easier that way.(29)
这样更简单。

It's isolating, because you don't want yoursecret to be found out.(30)
这是孤立的,因为你不希望你的秘密被发现。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Palmer's at the third-gradelevel now, and dreams of being able to read(31)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:帕尔默现在处于三年级,并且梦想能够阅读

books to her grandchildren.(32)
给她孙子的书。

She's not alone.(33)
她并不孤单。

ROBYN RAYMOND, Director, Spruce Mountain Adult& Community Education: Spruce Mountain adult(34)
ROBYN RAYMOND,Spruce Mountain成人和社区教育总监:云杉山成人

education has grown almost 200 percent inthe last three years.(35)
在过去三年中,教育增长了近200%。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Robyn Raymond runs this program.(36)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Robyn Raymond负责这个项目。

She says the increased demand for classesis because local paper mills went to automation(37)
她说,对课程的需求增加是因为当地造纸厂开始实施自动化

or moved jobs overseas.(38)
或将工作转移到海外。

Also, there's less demand for paper.(39)
此外,对纸张的需求也较少。

So, positions that paid well even if you didn'thave a high school diploma vanished.(40)
因此,即使你没有高中毕业证书,支付得很好的职位也会消失。

ROBYN RAYMOND: A month after I started, Versopaper laid off 300 workers from their mill.(41)
ROBYN RAYMOND:我开始工作一个月后,Verso的纸张从他们的工厂裁掉了300名工人。

A year later, they ended up laying off another200 workers.(42)
一年后,他们最终解雇了另外200名工人。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Mill closings caused a rippleeffect throughout this region.(43)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:轧机关闭在整个地区造成了连锁反应。

ROBYN RAYMOND: It does tend to look like aghost town.(44)
ROBYN RAYMOND:它确实看起来像鬼城。

Here's the site of the Otis mill, which hasbeen gutted.(45)
这是Otis工厂的工地,已被毁坏。

And it's run down, so it's a scrapyard.(46)
它已经耗尽,所以它是一个废品场。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: The need for adult educationisn't just concentrated in Maine, where manufacturing(47)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:对成人教育的需求不仅仅集中在制造业的缅因州

was the backbone of the middle class.(48)
是中产阶级的支柱。

Hundreds of adult education centers acrossthe country help with everything from high(49)
全国各地数以百计的成人教育中心为高层建筑提供帮助

school completion to resume writing to jobtraining.(50)
完成学业以恢复写职业培训。

But an area that's often overlooked is basicreading and math.(51)
但是经常被忽视的一个领域是基本阅读和数学。

SHARON BONNEY, Chief Executive Director, Coalitionon Adult Basic Education: Thirty-six million(52)
SHARON BONNEY,成人基础教育联盟首席执行官:三千六百万

adults in the U.S. lack the basic literacyskills that they need.(53)
美国的成年人缺乏他们所需的基本识字技能。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Sharon Bonney heads the Coalitionon Adult Basic Education, a national nonprofit.(54)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Sharon Bonney领导成人基础教育联盟,这是一个全国性的非营利组织。

SHARON BONNEY: These are folks at the lowestliteracy levels.(55)
SHARON BONNEY:这些人的识字水平最低。

They can't find a job.(56)
他们找不到工作。

Or if they find a job, it's at entry level,minimum wage jobs.(57)
或者如果他们找到工作,那就是入门级的最低工资工作。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: She says, of the 36 million,adult education programs across the country(58)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:她说,全国有3600万个成人教育项目

only serve 1.5 million because of funding.(59)
由于资金问题,仅服务150万。

Federal dollars have not kept up with inflation.(60)
联邦美元跟不上通货膨胀。

SHARON BONNEY: Historically, funding has actuallybeen about half of what it was just 15 years(61)
SHARON BONNEY:从历史上看,资金实际上只有15年的一半左右

ago.(62)
前。

So we are only able to serve a percentageof what we were 15 years ago.(63)
所以我们只能服务于15年前的一定比例。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: State and local funding hasalso seen cuts.(64)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:州和地方的资金也出现减产。

Bonney says some people don't realize howbig a need there is.(65)
邦尼说,有些人并没有意识到有多大的需求。

Others feel adults have already had a chanceat an education.(66)
其他人认为成年人已经有机会接受教育。

A Trump administration proposal for next yearhas called for an almost 25 percent cut to(67)
特朗普明年的政府提案要求削减近25%

state adult education programs.(68)
州成人教育计划。

Advocates say that would be devastating.(69)
支持者说这将是毁灭性的。

Some states already have long waiting lists.(70)
一些州已经有很长的等待名单。

Some have cut back classes, and others havehad to increase student fees.(71)
有些人削减了课程,其他人不得不增加学生费用。

Many adult learners have an added challenge.(72)
许多成人学习者面临着额外的挑战。

They need to learn to speak English.(73)
他们需要学会说英语。

ANITA ST.(74)
ANITA ST。

ONGE, Executive Officer, Portland Adult Education:These are our graduates from last year.(75)
ONGE,波特兰成人教育执行官:这些是我们去年的毕业生。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Anita St. Onge is the directorof Portland Adult Education, which serves(76)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Anita St. Onge是波特兰成人教育的主任

2,000 students, mostly immigrants.(77)
2,000名学生,大多数是移民。

Some were doctors and lawyers in their homecountries.(78)
有些人是他们祖国的医生和律师。

Others never got a chance to go to school.(79)
其他人从未有机会上学。

St. Onge says they offer classes from 8:00in the morning to 8:00 at night.(80)
St. Onge说他们提供从早上8点到晚上8点的课程。

ANITA ST.(81)
ANITA ST。

ONGE: Some of our classes have 30 in a classroom,so they're quite full.(82)
ONGE:我们的一些课程在课堂上有30个,所以他们很满。

Our students have lives.(83)
我们的学生有生命。

They have children, they have families, theyhave jobs.(84)
他们有孩子,有家庭,有工作。

Sometimes, they have two and three jobs.(85)
有时,他们有两个和三个工作。

CLASS: I have a fever.(86)
CLASS:我发烧了。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: This beginning English classallows students to practice speaking.(87)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:这个初级英语课程允许学生练习口语。

DIVINE MUSHIYA, Adult Learner: I rememberthe challenge was, every day, we have to learn(88)
DIVINE MUSHIYA,成人学习者:我记得挑战是每天我们必须学习

one word.(89)
一个词。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Twenty-seven-year-old DivineMushiya is from the Democratic Republic of(90)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:二十七岁的Divine Mushiya来自民主共和国

the Congo.(91)
刚果。

DIVINE MUSHIYA: When I came here, all I knewto say was hi, good morning.(92)
DIVINE MUSHIYA:当我来到这里时,我所知道的就是嗨,早上好。

And even when you go out and people try totalk to you, you cannot answer them, because(93)
即使你外出时人们试图与你交谈,你也无法回答他们,因为

you don't understand what they say to you.(94)
你不明白他们对你说了什么。

That was really hard.(95)
那真的很难。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: She starts work in a factoryat 4:00 in the morning, so she can come to(96)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:她早上4点开始在工厂工作,所以她可以来

classes at night.(97)
晚上上课。

She's slowly getting more fluent.(98)
她慢慢变得更流利。

DIVINE MUSHIYA: When you learn English outside,you don't know vocabulary.(99)
DIVINE MUSHIYA:当你在外面学习英语时,你不懂词汇。

You don't know how to use correctly the word.(100)
你不知道如何正确使用这个词。

So coming here was really helpful for me.(101)
所以来这里真的对我有帮助。

When my English get better, I get promotion.(102)
当我的英语变得更好时,我得到晋升。

Yes, it's really great.(103)
是的,真的很棒。

CLASS: He has a backache.(104)
CLASS:他有背痛。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: St. Onge says her studentssay they want to feel more integrated into(105)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:St。Onge说她的学生们说他们想要更融入其中

the fabric of social life.(106)
社会生活的结构。

ANITA ST.(107)
ANITA ST。

ONGE: Once you learn English, you can participatein a much more meaningful way.(108)
ONGE:一旦你学习英语,你就可以参与更有意义的方式。

You can participate in community meetingsand neighborhood associations.(109)
您可以参加社区会议和社区协会。

The people who came to Portland Adult Ed 10,15 years ago are some of the pillars in our(110)
15年前来到Portland Adult Ed 10的人是我们的一些支柱

community.(111)
社区。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Advocates also say givingadults a second chance at an education makes(112)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:倡导者还说,给予成年人第二次接受教育的机会

economic sense, better jobs, more taxes, lessreliance on social services.(113)
经济意识,更好的工作,更多的税收,更少依赖社会服务。

Adults who are poorly educated are also lesslikely to be involved in their child's education,(114)
受过良好教育的成年人也不太可能参与孩子的教育,

and less likely to volunteer or vote, allof which have implications for the entire(115)
并且不太可能自愿或投票,所有这些都会对整个人产生影响

country.(116)
国家。

Lisa Crawford can trace her family back fivegenerations in Maine.(117)
Lisa Crawford可以追溯她在缅因州的五代人。

She's 45, and struggled through school beforedropping out.(118)
她已经45岁了,在辍学之前一直在学校里挣扎。

She couldn't fill out forms, couldn't readroad signs, couldn't help her kids with schoolwork.(119)
她无法填写表格,无法阅读路标,无法帮助她的孩子完成学业。

LISA CRAWFORD, Adult Learner: I felt reallyupset and just kind of stuck in the box of(120)
LISA CRAWFORD,成人学习者:我感到非常沮丧,只是被困在盒子里

not having that education that I wanted.(121)
没有我想要的那种教育。

I felt worthless.(122)
我觉得一文不值。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Three years ago, she enrolledin adult education classes and received her(123)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:三年前,她参加了成人教育课程并接待了她

high school diploma.(124)
高中毕业证。

Now she's a school custodian, a job she wouldn'thave qualified for in the past because she(125)
现在她是学校的监护人,这是她过去没有资格的工作,因为她

needs to be able to read and write every day.(126)
需要每天都能读写。

LISA CRAWFORD: You have to know everythingthat's labeled because of -- some chemicals(127)
LISA CRAWFORD:你必须知道因为 - 某些化学物质而被标记的所有东西

can be really harmful.(128)
可能真的有害。

Some, you can't mix together.(129)
有些,你不能混在一起。

KAVITHA CARDOZA: Crawford orders cleaningsupplies, reads machinery manuals, and fills(130)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:Crawford订购清洁用品,阅读机械手册和填充物

out accident reports.(131)
出事故报告。

She says her life now is a dream come true,a stable job with benefits.(132)
她说她现在的生活是一个梦想成真,一个有益的稳定工作。

LISA CRAWFORD: If I didn't have that, I wouldn'thave my smile today, and it -- always smiling.(133)
丽莎克劳福德:如果我没有那个,我今天不会笑,而且 - 总是微笑。

And I can't stop, even if I cry.(134)
即使我哭,我也无法停止。

(LAUGHTER)
LISA CRAWFORD: My life back then, I was anostrich in the ground.(135)
LISA CRAWFORD:那时我的生活,我是地上的鸵鸟。

And my life now, I am bloom and blooming.(136)
而我现在的生活,我绽放和绽放。

(LAUGHTER)
KAVITHA CARDOZA: For the "PBS NewsHour" andEducation Week, I'm Kavitha Cardoza in Portland,(137)
KAVITHA CARDOZA:对于“PBS NewsHour”和教育周,我是波特兰的Kavitha Cardoza,

Maine.(138)
缅因州。


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