Women on a Top-Secret Mission in 'Atomic City'
2013-03-26 22:44:00

GWEN IFILL: Finally tonight, the tale of a top-secret town with a top-secret mission and the women who made history there.(1)
GWEN IFILL:最后今晚的绝密镇绝密使命和妇女们所作的历史故事。

Ray Suarez has our book conversation.(2)
Ray 苏亚雷斯有我们书的谈话。

RAY SUAREZ: During the mid-1940s, thousands of young women got offers of good-paying jobs working on some sort of government project in the South.(3)
RAY SUAREZ:在 20 世纪 40 年代中期,成千上万的青年妇女了提供某种形式的政府项目在南方工作的良好高薪职业。

They were told their efforts would lead to a quicker end to World War II, but they were told little else.(4)

They worked as secretaries and nurses, chemists and technicians, all the while not knowing the real purpose of their jobs: to enrich fuel for the first atomic bomb ever used in combat.(5)
他们担任秘书、 护士、 化学家和技术人员,都不知道自己的工作的真正目的: 以丰富的第一颗原子弹在战斗中使用过的燃料。

Denise Kiernan tells their story in the book "The Girls of Atomic City: The Untold Story of the Women Who Helped Win World War II." She's a journalist who has written extensive about American history, and joins us now.(6)
俞宗怡女士基尔南在书中告诉他们的故事"原子城的女孩: 帮助妇女的故事赢二战。"她是一名记者有关美国历史上,写了广泛和现在加入我们。

Untold story, all right. I mean, whether it's Albert Einstein or Leo Szilard or Edward Teller or Robert Oppenheimer, even Harry Truman, this has been a man's story all along.(7)
无尽的故事,好吧。我的意思是,无论是阿尔伯特 · 爱因斯坦还是圣拉多就低地球轨道或氢弹或罗伯特 · 奥本海默,甚至哈里 · 杜鲁门,这一直一直一个人的故事。

DENISE KIERNAN, Author, "The Girls of Atomic City: The Untold Story of the Women Who Helped Win World War II": It really has.(8)
DENISE KIERNAN, Author, "The Girls of Atomic City:妇女谁帮助赢得二战故事": 它真的有。

And it's also a story that's often told from the top down, from the position of knowing and decision-making down, as opposed to from the perspective of people who were crucial and invaluable to the success of the project, but didn't necessarily have any idea what the larger picture was.(9)

RAY SUAREZ: Again and again, I had to remind myself while reading this book how circumscribed the lives of women were in 1943. You're reading it with your 2013 head.(10)
RAY SUAREZ:又一次,我不得不提醒自己阅读这本书如何限制妇女的生活都是在 1943 年时。您正在阅读它与你的 2013年头。

And then you have to remember, oh, yes, they couldn't do this. They couldn't do that in so many cases.(11)

DENISE KIERNAN: In so many cases. And at -- in one respect, it was such a time of liberation for women, World War II, because so many men were away fighting.(12)
DENISE KIERNAN:在这么多的情况下。— — 在一个方面,当时这种解放妇女,二次世界大战,因为这么多的男人都去参加战斗。

Opportunities opened up for them that had never existed before, to work in plants, to work with farm machinery, to work as welders.(13)

But, at the same time, you know, for example, Jane, one of the women I profile in the book, this was a very bright young woman who wanted to study engineering and was -- you know, just got a tap on the shoulder when she went to go matriculate at the University of Tennessee and was told, no, I'm sorry. You -- girls don't study that.(14)
但是,同时,你知道,例如,简,我在这本书中的女性之一配置的文件,这是非常聪明的年轻女想学工程,是 — — 你知道,当她去在田纳西大学的生源和被告知,不,对不起,我刚拿到水龙头的肩膀。你 — — 女孩不学习的。

But then she went on to be a statistician for the Manhattan Project. So, it was limiting and expanding at once, almost.(15)

RAY SUAREZ: Cumulatively, your women give us a portrait of womanhood in America in 1943, some educated, some not, some rural, some urban, some of immigrant stock, some of longtime American stock.(16)
RAY SUAREZ:累积,您的妇女给我们在美国的女人肖像于 1943 年,一些受过教育,有些未必,有些农村,一些城市,移民的一些股票,一些资深的美国股票。

It was really -- the crowd you put together gave us a chance to look into all these different lives.(17)
那真是 — — 你把放在一起的人群给了我们一个机会,看看所有这些不同的生活。

DENISE KIERNAN: And that was something that I really worked to do because I interviewed so many women.(18)
DENISE KIERNAN:也就是事情我真的去做,因为我采访了如此多的妇女。

And I, of course, interviewed a number of men as well who had lived and worked in Oak Ridge, Tenn., during World War II.(19)

And I did want to have as many perspectives as possible on this story.(20)

So, yes, some of the women are 18-year-olds with just a high school education recruited out of diners in Murfreesboro, Tenn.(21)
所以,是的一些妇女是 18 岁刚从食客中下士招聘高中教育

Others are, you know, nurses from Chicago, you know, with a certain amount of education.(22)

And, you know, another is a chemist, you know, with a degree from the University of North Carolina.(23)

So I wanted to be able to show all of those perspectives and enter the story of the Manhattan Project from all those different points of view.(24)

RAY SUAREZ: We are reminded again and again how peculiar this was, to bring together thousands of people from all over the place to a place that really didn't even exist yet.(25)
RAY SUAREZ:再次提醒我们,又多么奇特这是,召集成千上万的人从地方到真的甚至还不存在的地方。

It was like mushrooms coming up after spring rain. A city just comes out of the mud, all strangers to each other. But they couldn't talk to each other about what they were doing.(26)
这就像上来春天雨后的蘑菇。一座城市只是出自泥浆、 彼此都是陌生人。但彼此,他们不能谈论他们正在做什么。


This was not a town that was designated or repurposed for the war effort. This was a town that didn't exist before the war. And they bring in all of these people. It started in 1942.(28)
这不是一个小镇,被指定或改变用途的战争努力。这是一个小镇,在战争之前并不存在。他们带来的所有这些人。它开始于 1942 年。

The government thought, oh, we will probably have -- let's plan for about 13,000..(29)
政府认为,哦,我们将可能有 — — 让我们计划为约 13,000...

Well, by mid-1945, less than two years later, a town with 75,000 residents, operating 24 hours a day, using more electricity than New York City, and with one of the 10 largest bus systems in the entire country, and it's not on a map.(30)
嗯,1945 年中旬,由不少于两年后,与 75,000 的居民,24 小时运作的一个小镇一天,使用更多的电能,比纽约城,并与其中一个最大的 10 总线系统在整个国家,和它不在地图上。

And, yes, you have all these people there together in this confined space spending all this time together, but the most natural question, "Well, what do you do?" is the one thing you're never supposed to ask.(31)

So, "Where are you from?" was sort of the cadence you would hear everywhere, because that was safe. "So, where are you from?"(32)

RAY SUAREZ: They were pioneering ways of refining radioactive material, weren't they?(33)
RAY SUAREZ:他们开拓方式的精炼放射性物质,它们不吗?

DENISE KIERNAN: Yes. The machines that they used to enrich uranium or separate different isotopes of uranium really had just been created just recently and had never been done anywhere near on this scale.(34)
DENISE KIERNAN:是。它们用于铀浓缩或单独不同的同位素铀的真的刚刚了最近刚刚创建,还没听过任何地方不久对这种规模的机器。

So it was a completely -- just a really completely brand-new endeavor.(35)

RAY SUAREZ: They don't find out until the end what they were doing, when the bomb is actually detonated.(36)
RAY SUAREZ:他们不要找出直到结束他们在做什么,当实际上引爆炸弹。

But did this experience change the life trajectories of these women? Did they go on to have different 1950s, 1960s, 1970s than they might have otherwise because they were in Oak Ridge?(37)
但这种经验是否改变这些妇女的生活轨迹?他们去了吗上有不同的上世纪 50 年代、 60 年代,比 1970 年代有可能否则因为它们都在橡树岭吗?

DENISE KIERNAN: That's a very -- that's a very interesting question.(38)
DENISE KIERNAN:这就是非常 — — 这是一个非常有趣的问题。

One of the things that did happen to a lot of them is, you know, we were talking about before having all those people in such a confined space. A lot of people ended up married.(39)

So some women shifted over to being housewives. Others stayed in the plants working as chemists. One was -- became a librarian for one of the plants.(40)
因此有些妇女对转向是家庭主妇。一些人呆在工作作为化学家的植物。一个是 — — 成为一名图书管理员的植物之一。

And she probably would have had a future as -- you know, still working at that diner in Tennessee.(41)
她可能会有一个未来 — — 如你所知的仍在田纳西州的那个小餐馆工作。

The young coal miner's daughter from Shenandoah always thought she would just be a secretary who got married and stayed in her hometown.(42)

And she saw a much greater part of the world because of that.(43)

So, a variety of opportunities, and perhaps what was most surprising for them was that this town that really didn't have any post-war plan, for many of them became home for now going on 70 years.(44)
因此,各种各样的机会,和什么也许是最令人惊讶,他们就是这个小镇真的没有任何战后的计划,对许多人来说成为了回家,现在上 70 年。

RAY SUAREZ: If you were a young adult in the mid-'40s, you're, what, in your 90s now? Just like World War II veterans who are disappearing from among us, are the girls of Atomic City also harder to find than they were just a short time ago?(45)
RAY SUAREZ:如果你是一个年轻成人中 ' 中年,你是,什么,你现在的 90 年代吗?就像消失了,从我们的二战老兵,原子城的女孩也是找比他们只需短时间前难吗?

DENISE KIERNAN: They are even just in the last several years.(46)
DENISE KIERNAN:他们甚至只是在过去的几年。

And the window on this world -- and, by that, I mean our access to this moment in time via the experiences and conversations we can have to people who actually lived through it -- is shrinking so rapidly.(47)
这个世界--上和通过的窗口,我的意思是我们访问到此时刻通过经验和对话,我们可以通过它 — — 在实际居住的人是如此迅速萎缩。

The youngest of my girls right now is about 88 years old. And others are 94 and 96..(48)
最年轻的我的女孩现在是 88 岁左右。人是 94 和 96...

So there really is a limited amount of time, and decreasing every month the number of people we have that we can talk to about these experiences.(49)

RAY SUAREZ: "The Girls of Atomic City: The Untold Story of the Women Who Helped Win World War II."  Denise Kiernan, thanks.(50)
RAY SUAREZ:"原子城的女孩: 那些有助于赢得二战的女人的故事."俞宗怡女士基尔南,谢谢你。

DENISE KIERNAN: Thank you very much.(51)

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