Marijuana has become big business. So why are small growers struggling to survive?
2019-07-11 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Now the latest in our seriesThe Green Rush.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:现在是我们的系列The Green Rush的最新版本。

As marijuana legalization has swept the country,investors are seeing green.(2)
随着大麻合法化席卷全国,投资者看到了绿色。

In California, new companies are scaling upoperations, while some smaller businesses(3)
在加利福尼亚州,新公司正在扩大业务,而一些小型企业

are fighting for survival.(4)
正在为生存而战。

Economics correspondent Paul Solman has thestory, part of his regular reporting, Making(5)
经济学记者Paul Solman讲述了他的定期报道“制作”的一部分

Sense.(6)
感。

PAUL HENDERSON, CEO, Grupo Flor: So, we haveabout 60 to 70 different strains at any given(7)
Paul HENDERSON,首席执行官,Grupo Flor:所以,我们在任何给定的情况下都有大约60到70种不同的菌株

time.(8)
时间。

PAUL SOLMAN: At East of Eden in Salinas, California,pick your cannabis flower, any flower, labeled(9)
保罗·索曼:在加利福尼亚州萨利纳斯的伊甸园东边,挑选你的大麻花,任何标有花的花

by brand and THC punch.(10)
按品牌和THC打孔。

Well, here is one.(11)
嗯,这是一个。

Berry O.G...(12)
Berry OG ..

PAUL HENDERSON: Twenty-nine.(13)
保罗亨德森:二十九岁。

PAUL SOLMAN: ... is 29.7, so you really highoff of this, I take it?(14)
保罗·索尔曼:......是29.7,所以你真的很高兴,我接受了吗?

PAUL HENDERSON: Anything above 25 will sellout almost immediately.(15)
PAUL HENDERSON:25岁以上的任何东西都会立即售罄。

PAUL SOLMAN: Is that right?(16)
PAUL SOLMAN:是吗?

PAUL HENDERSON: Right.(17)
PAUL HENDERSON:对。

PAUL SOLMAN: Paul Henderson, formerly withGoldman Sachs, now CEO of Grupo Flor, which(18)
PAUL SOLMAN:保罗亨德森,曾任高盛公司,现任Grupo Flor的首席执行官

owns two dispensaries and will open 18 morewithin a year.(19)
拥有两个药房,并将在一年内再开18个。

PAUL HENDERSON: We will do around, right now,$1.3 million a month in sales...(20)
PAUL HENDERSON:我们现在每个月要做130万美元的销售......

PAUL SOLMAN: Right here?(21)
保罗·索尔曼:就在这儿?

PAUL HENDERSON: ... from this store alone,yes.(22)
PAUL HENDERSON:......仅从这家商店来,是的。

PAUL SOLMAN: And Grupo Flor isn't just retail.(23)
PAUL SOLMAN:Grupo Flor不只是零售业。

In a few years, the firm's become one of California'slargest cannabis companies, from retail, to(24)
几年后,该公司成为加州最大的大麻公司之一,从零售到商业

cultivation, to manufacturing and distribution.(25)
种植,制造和分销。

Co-founder Mike Bitar had been in commercialreal estate.(26)
联合创始人Mike Bitar曾经从事商业房地产业务。

MIKE BITAR, Co-Founder, Grupo Flor: And Ijust happened to stumble across cannabis and(27)
MIKE BITAR,Grupo Flor的联合创始人:我碰巧偶然发现大麻和

saw how lucrative it was and realized we shouldget in the business.(28)
看到它有多赚钱,并意识到我们应该进入这个行业。

PAUL SOLMAN: Were you a user?(29)
PAUL SOLMAN:你是用户吗?

MIKE BITAR: No.(30)
MIKE BITAR:没有。

I didn't see the difference between heroin,unfortunately, and marijuana.(31)
不幸的是,我没有看到海洛因和大麻之间的区别。

PAUL SOLMAN: Well, he soon did.(32)
保罗·索尔曼:嗯,他很快就做到了。

By 2016, when Californians voted to legalizerecreational adult marijuana use, Bitar and(33)
到2016年,当加利福尼亚人投票使娱乐成人大麻合法化使用时,Bitar和

partners had already snapped up one-and-a-halfmillion square feet of greenhouse space lying(34)
合作伙伴已经抢购了一百五十万平方英尺的温室空间

fallow since the cut flower business emigratedto South America.(35)
因为切花业务移居南美而休耕。

They'd grow cannabis instead.(36)
他们生长大麻而不是。

PAUL HENDERSON: There might not be a largerwealth-generating opportunity that I will(37)
PAUL HENDERSON:我可能不会有更大的创造财富的机会

see in my lifetime again.(38)
再看看我的一生。

I mean, it's staggering what can be builtin this industry right now.(39)
我的意思是,现在这个行业可以建立起来的是惊人的。

PAUL SOLMAN: Eighteen billion dollars wasinvested in cannabis last year alone.(40)
保罗·索尔曼(Paul SOLMAN):仅去年就投入了大约18亿美元的大麻。

And, says industry researcher John Kagia,big-time players are moving in.(41)
行业研究员约翰·卡吉亚(John Kagia)表示,大型玩家正在搬进来。

JOHN KAGIA, New Frontier Data: ConstellationBrands, the world's largest alcohol company,(42)
JOHN KAGIA,新前沿数据:Constellation Brands,全球最大的酒类公司,

and Altria, the world's largest tobacco company.(43)
和世界上最大的烟草公司奥驰亚。

But you have also seen companies like MolsonCoors, Lagunitas Brewing Company, CVS and(44)
但是你也看过像Molson Coors,Lagunitas Brewing Company,CVS和

Walgreens getting into this space.(45)
Walgreens进入这个空间。

PAUL SOLMAN: This is the green rush, chasingan estimated $350 billion in annual global(46)
保罗·索尔曼:这是绿色的热潮,每年全球每年追逐3500亿美元

sales, Kagia thinks a trillion within 15 years.(47)
销售方面,Kagia在15年内认为万亿。

In Santa Barbara County, acres of white structureshouse some of the biggest grows in the world.(48)
在圣巴巴拉县,几英亩的白色建筑物拥有世界上最大的一些。

Grupo Flor is rushing to keep up.(49)
Grupo Flor急于跟上。

A recent operations meeting, new employees,new dispensaries.(50)
最近的运营会议,新员工,新药房。

MAN: They're targeting this location to bethe dispensary for celebrities.(51)
男:他们把这个地方作为名人的诊所。

PAUL SOLMAN: And over speakerphone.(52)
PAUL SOLMAN:还有扬声器。

MAN: Greetings from Colombia.(53)
男:来自哥伦比亚的问候。

PAUL SOLMAN: New operations overseas.(54)
PAUL SOLMAN:海外新业务。

MAN: We incorporated Grupo Flor Colombia inFebruary of this year.(55)
男:我们今年2月合并了Grupo Flor Colombia。

We're also looking at Mexico.(56)
我们也在看墨西哥。

And last but not least, we are looking atAsia as well.(57)
最后但同样重要的是,我们也在关注亚洲。

PAUL SOLMAN: In Salinas, fences block theproduct from public view, while razor wire(58)
保罗·索曼:在萨利纳斯,围栏阻挡了产品的公众视野,而剃刀线

and guards protect the high-profit plantsfrom thieves.(59)
和警卫保护高利润的植物免受盗贼的侵害。

GAVIN KOGAN, Co-Founder, Grupo Flor: A farmlike this is ever-flowering.(60)
GAVIN KOGAN,Grupo Flor的联合创始人:像这样的农场一直在开花。

We're always cutting and always harvesting.(61)
我们总是切割和收割。

PAUL SOLMAN: Five crops a year in this greenhouse,says Grupo Flor's Gavin Kogan, vs. just one(62)
保罗·索尔曼(Paul SOLMAN):Grupo Flor的Gavin Kogan表示,这个温室每年有五季作物

or two outdoors.(63)
或两个在户外。

This is one of the firm's seven Californiasites.(64)
这是该公司的七个加州站点之一。

GAVIN KOGAN: Right now, what's happening inCalifornia is aggregation.(65)
GAVIN KOGAN:现在,加利福尼亚正在发生的事情是聚合。

Companies are acquiring other companies.(66)
公司正在收购其他公司。

And so, if we don't cultivate, we lose oursupply chain, and we can get crushed out.(67)
因此,如果我们不培养,我们就会失去供应链,我们就会被淘汰出局。

PAUL SOLMAN: Crushed out like Oliver Bates.(68)
保罗·索尔曼:像奥利弗·贝茨一样被淘汰出局。

So, you cultivated marijuana for 25 years.(69)
所以,你种植大麻已有25年了。

Now you are out of the business and broke?(70)
现在你已经退出了生意并且破产了?

OLIVER BATES, Cannabis Grower: Now I'm outof the business and broke.(71)
OLIVER BATES,Cannabis Grower:现在我已经退出了生意并且破产了。

PAUL SOLMAN: Bates grew cannabis for yearsin the Monterey County hills near Big Sur.(72)
保罗·索尔曼:贝茨在大苏尔附近的蒙特雷县山区种植大麻多年。

But with legalization came rules and regs.(73)
但随着合法化,规则和注册。

OLIVER BATES: Outside investment came in andlobbied their interests and made sure that,(74)
OLIVER BATES:外部投资进来并游说他们的利益,并确保,

in the new regulation, that only commercialgreenhouses were allowed to grow cannabis.(75)
在新规定中,只允许商业温室种植大麻。

PAUL SOLMAN: So you cannot have an outdoorfarm in Monterey County?(76)
PAUL SOLMAN:所以你不能在蒙特雷县有一个户外农场?

OLIVER BATES: Yes.(77)
OLIVER BATES:是的。

I have been giving away weed, all my weed.(78)
我一直在放弃杂草,我所有的杂草。

I can say a pound of mine made it to the Grammys,and it was a big hit.(79)
我可以说我的一磅是格莱美奖,这是一个很大的打击。

PAUL SOLMAN: But it's not legal yet?(80)
保罗·索尔曼:但这不合法吗?

OLIVER BATES: It's not legal yet.(81)
奥利弗贝茨:这还不合法。

PAUL SOLMAN: What are you doing for a livingnow?(82)
保罗·索尔曼:你现在在做什么?

OLIVER BATES: Consulting and working for free.(83)
OLIVER BATES:免费咨询和工作。

I'm actually not making a living right now.(84)
我现在实际上并不谋生。

PAUL SOLMAN: How are you surviving?(85)
PAUL SOLMAN:你过得怎么样?

OLIVER BATES: I'm broke.(86)
奥利弗贝茨:我好破了。

Day by day, you know, and really help -- helpfrom friends at this point.(87)
你知道,日复一日,真的很有帮助 - 此时朋友的帮助。

PAUL SOLMAN: Further north in Humboldt County,outdoor is OK, but it's costly.(88)
保罗·索尔曼:在洪堡县的北部,户外活动还可以,但价格昂贵。

Dylan Mattole had to run a licensing steeplechase.(89)
Dylan Mattole不得不进行授权障碍赛。

DYLAN MATTOLE, Mattole Valley Sungrown: We'reprobably into it about $100,000.(90)
DYLAN MATTOLE,Mattole Valley Sungrown:我们可能会花费大约10万美元。

PAUL SOLMAN: A hundred thousand dollars, andhow much of your time?(91)
保罗·索曼:十万美元,你们有多少时间?

DYLAN MATTOLE: Well, about three years.(92)
DYLAN MATTOLE:好吧,大约三年。

PAUL SOLMAN: Really?(93)
PAUL SOLMAN:真的吗?

DYLAN MATTOLE: Absolutely.(94)
DYLAN MATTOLE:绝对。

For many people, it wasn't even possible tobe compliant, in the sense of dealing with(95)
对于许多人来说,在处理意义上甚至不可能符合要求

the regulatory requirements for roads, water,grading.(96)
道路,水,分级的监管要求。

And so, for people, it just -- it wasn't -- itisn't feasible to move on.(97)
因此,对于人们而言,它只是 - 它不是 - 继续前进是不可行的。

PAUL SOLMAN: What's more, since the 1960s,rural, rugged, way out-of-the-way Humboldt(98)
保罗·索尔曼:更重要的是,自20世纪60年代以来,农村的,崎岖的,远离洪堡的道路

has attracted government-leery homesteaderswho grew pot illegally.(99)
吸引了非法种植大麻的政府主导的自耕农。

To no one around here does regulation compliancecome naturally.(100)
对于周围没有人来说,监管合规是自然而然的。

DYLAN MATTOLE: A lot of the, you know, aswe would call them, legacy farmers here have(101)
DYLAN MATTOLE:很多,你知道,正如我们所说的那样,这里的传统农民都有

been doing this for a long time, generations,and the culture was to keep your head down,(102)
很长一段时间以来都在这样做,而且文化是为了让你低下头,

mind your own business.(103)
介意你自己的事。

PAUL SOLMAN: And having nothing to do withthe man, right?(104)
保罗·索尔曼:与这个男人无关,对吧?

DYLAN MATTOLE: But having nothing to do withthe man.(105)
DYLAN MATTOLE:但与男人无关。

PAUL SOLMAN: There are thousands of cannabisfarms in Humboldt, but just a tiny fraction(106)
保罗·索尔曼:洪堡有数千个大麻农场,但只是一小部分

have been licensed.(107)
已获得许可。

DYLAN MATTOLE: You know, where this is goingto end, I couldn't say quite yet.(108)
DYLAN MATTOLE:你知道,这将会结束,我还不能说。

But it's a void and a vacuum that is not goingto be readily filled.(109)
但这是一个空虚和真空,不会轻易填补。

There is not a huge economy in Humboldt Countycurrently outside of cannabis.(110)
洪堡县目前没有大麻经济。

PAUL SOLMAN: And small farmers like Mattole,licensed and now growing above-board, face(111)
保罗·索尔曼(Paul SOLMAN):像马托勒(Mattole)这样的小农户,已经获得许

other hurdles.(112)
其他障碍。

DYLAN MATTOLE: There currently still is zerobanking in the cannabis industry.(113)
DYLAN MATTOLE:大麻行业目前仍然没有银行业务。

So, imagine trying to start a small businessfunding it entirely on your own without credit.(114)
因此,想象一下,试图创办一家小企业,完全靠自己资助,而不需要信贷。

PAUL SOLMAN: Grupo Flor's Gavin Kogan sympathizes.(115)
PAUL SOLMAN:Grupo Flor的Gavin Kogan表示同情。

GAVIN KOGAN: This is really difficult to do.(116)
GAVIN KOGAN:这真的很难做到。

It takes a lot of capital.(117)
这需要很多资金。

Regulations are heavy.(118)
法规很重。

We're overtaxed.(119)
我们过度劳累了。

And so where I really feel the pain comingfor small farmers is that they're having to(120)
因此,我真正感受到小农的痛苦,他们必须这样做

face the obstacles we face without the capitaland without the people and the business know-how(121)
面对我们在没有资本和没有人民和商业知识的情况下面临的障碍

to really do an effective job.(122)
真正做到有效的工作。

PAUL SOLMAN: And without the cost advantagesof the black market from which they have come.(123)
PAUL SOLMAN:没有黑市的成本优势。

Nikki Lastreto's Mendocino farm is now legit.(124)
Nikki Lastreto的Mendocino农场现在是合法的。

But most of her neighboring farmers aren't.(125)
但她的大多数邻近农民都没有。

And they pose as much of a threat as her corporatecompetitors, she says.(126)
她说,他们构成了与企业竞争对手一样多的威胁。

NIKKI LASTRETO, Co-Founder, Swami Select:Right now, they're able to sell at $1,500,(127)
Wami Select联合创始人NIKKI LASTRETO:现在,它们的售价为1,500美元,

where we're getting, after all the expensesinvolved, the taxes, et cetera, and the packaging,(128)
在涉及所有费用之后,我们得到的税收,等等和包装,

about $900 a pound.(129)
每磅约900美元。

PAUL SOLMAN: And if you're a seller on theblack market?(130)
保罗·索尔曼:如果你是黑市上的卖家?

NIKKI LASTRETO: You sell it on the black market,you just do like the old days.(131)
NIKKI LASTRETO:你在黑市上卖它,就像过去那样。

You just grow it in seclusion, hope the copsdon't find you, and find a buyer, and they(132)
你只是在隐居中成长,希望警察找不到你,找到买主,他们

come right up.(133)
来吧。

They pay you cash.(134)
他们付钱给你。

And it's out the door.(135)
它出了门。

PAUL SOLMAN: No permits?(136)
保罗·索曼:没有许可证?

NIKKI LASTRETO: No permits, no licenses, notaxes.(137)
NIKKI LASTRETO:没有许可证,没有许可证,没有税收。

The disadvantage the black market has is,of course, like in the old days, they have(138)
当然,黑市的劣势就像过去一样

to worry about the cops.(139)
担心警察。

They have to worry about helicopters circlingoverhead, getting busted.(140)
他们不得不担心直升机在头顶盘旋,被摧毁。

PAUL SOLMAN: So, you're in the odd positionnow...(141)
PAUL SOLMAN:所以,你现在处于奇怪的位置......

NIKKI LASTRETO: It's very odd.(142)
NIKKI LASTRETO:这很奇怪。

PAUL SOLMAN: ... of rooting for the helicopters.(143)
保罗·索尔曼:......为直升机生根。

NIKKI LASTRETO: It's difficult, though, becausethey're our friends, they're our neighbors.(144)
NIKKI LASTRETO:虽然这很困难,因为他们是我们的朋友,他们是我们的邻居。

And it is what we used to do.(145)
这是我们过去常做的事情。

So, how can I judge them?(146)
那么,我该如何判断呢?

PAUL SOLMAN: Back in Monterey County, whereonly greenhouse growing is allowed:(147)
保罗·索尔曼:回到蒙特雷县,只允许温室种植:

OLIVER BATES: We're going extinct.(148)
奥利弗贝茨:我们已经灭绝了。

We're really fighting to survive.(149)
我们真的在为生存而奋斗。

PAUL SOLMAN: Oliver Bates lobbies to makeoutdoor grows legal.(150)
PAUL SOLMAN:Oliver Bates游说让户外活动合法化。

And what does he think of big new operationslike Grupo Flor?(151)
他对像Grupo Flor这样的大型新业务有什么看法?

OLIVER BATES: I am furious that they haveno respect for the people that brought this(152)
奥利弗贝茨:我很生气他们不尊重带来这个的人

to them.(153)
给他们。

PAUL SOLMAN: The people who paid their dues?(154)
保罗·索尔曼:缴纳会费的人?

OLIVER BATES: The people that paid their dues,the people that spent their lives hiding in(155)
奥利弗贝茨:支付会费的人,他们一生都在躲藏的人

the bushes from helicopters, feeling likethey were criminals.(156)
从直升机的灌木丛,感觉他们是罪犯。

And, for that, I will be forever furious.(157)
而且,为此,我将永远愤怒。

PAUL SOLMAN: Lawyer and Grupo Flor co-founderGavin Kogan is conflicted.(158)
PAUL SOLMAN:Lawyer和Grupo Flor联合创始人Gavin Kogan发生冲突。

GAVIN KOGAN: I used -- spent most of my timeas a cannabis attorney representing small(159)
GAVIN KOGAN:我用过 - 大部分时间都是作为代表小人的大麻律师

growers.(160)
种植者。

It affects me to be seen as a threat and somebodythat is against their interests, because I(161)
它会影响我被视为一种威胁和一个违背他们利益的人,因为我

don't conceive of myself that way.(162)
不要那样想象自己。

PAUL SOLMAN: But he is a threat, due to theeconomies of scale of industrial production,(163)
保罗·索尔曼:但由于工业生产的规模经济,他是一个威胁,

as prohibition comes to an end.(164)
禁止即将结束。

For the "PBS NewsHour," this is business andeconomics correspondent Paul Solman in Northern(165)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,这是北方的商业和经济记者Paul Solman

California.(166)
加利福尼亚。


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