As water levels rise, this Alaska town is fleeing to higher ground
2019-11-27 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: This week has brought anotheralarming milestone.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:本周带来了另一个令人震惊的里程碑。

Global greenhouse gas emissions hit a recordlevel again last year.(2)
去年,全球温室气体排放再次达到创纪录水平。

As those heat-trapping gases increase, theEarth warms, melting even the thick ice in(3)
随着这些吸热气体的增加,地球变暖,甚至融化了

the Arctic that's supposed to remain permanentlyfrozen.(4)
应该永远冻结的北极。

As a result, rising seas could threaten hundredsof millions of people worldwide, including(5)
结果,不断上升的海洋可能威胁全球数亿人口,其中包括

in a small Alaskan village.(6)
在阿拉斯加的一个小村庄。

Stephanie Sy has the story of that villageand its efforts to adapt.(7)
斯蒂芬妮·西(Stephanie Sy)讲述了这个村庄的故事,并为它做出了努力。

It's part of our series on the Leading Edgeof science, health and technology.(8)
这是我们的科学,健康和技术前沿系列文章的一部分。

STEPHANIE SY: More than two decades ago, theYupik of Newtok, Alaska voted to move to a(9)
STEPHANIE SY:二十多年前,阿拉斯加纽托克(Newtok)的尤皮克(Yupik)投票决定将

new land.(10)
新天地。

With the Earth warming, the permafrost theirvillage sat on was melting, while rising seas(11)
随着地球变暖,他们的村庄坐在的永久冻土正在融化,而海平面上升

were making the Ninglick River rise and erodethe riverline and coastline, on average, 70(12)
平均使70的Ninglick河上升并侵蚀河线和海岸线

feet a year.(13)
一年一尺。

In early October, the first Yupik startedmoving to their new town, Mertarvik, located(14)
10月初,第一个Yupik开始搬到他们的新市镇Mertarvik

along a hillside of a volcanic island fromwhere the Ninglick meets the Bering Sea.(15)
沿着Ninglick与白令海汇合的火山岛山坡。

The new place is close, only nine miles away,but the journey was long and, as relocation(16)
新地方很近,只有九英里远,但是旅途很漫长,而且因为搬迁

coordinator Romy Cadiente describes, arduous.(17)
协调员Romy Cadiente形容艰巨。

ROMY CADIENTE, Newtok Relocation Coordinator:Getting all of the material, equipment, people,(18)
ROMY CADIENTE,Newtok搬迁协调员:获取所有材料,设备,人员,

food, everything that's associated with construction,the whole logistics, the whole planning of(19)
食品,与建筑相关的一切,整个物流,整个规划

this move was really challenging for everybody.(20)
这个举动对每个人来说都是真正的挑战。

STEPHANIE SY: Without a federal policy forrelocating people affected by climate change,(21)
STEPHANIE SY:如果没有联邦政策来安置受气候变化影响的人们,

the Yupik sought various funding sources,and the military helped build some of the(22)
尤皮克(Yupik)寻求各种资金来源,而军方则帮助建立了一些

houses.(23)
房屋。

The first prototype house was erected in 2016,and 17 families have now moved into new abodes.(24)
第一栋原型房屋建于2016年,现在有17个家庭搬进了新居。

They are improvements to what they and manyother rural Alaskans have had, with proper(25)
在适当的情况下,它们是对他们和许多其他阿拉斯加农村人所拥有的东西的改进

running water and sewage, replacing the so-calledhoney buckets that made living in Newtok less(26)
自来水和污水,取代了使纽托克生活减少的所谓蜂蜜桶

than sanitary.(27)
比卫生。

The community collaborated with outside groups,including the Alaska Native Tribal Health(28)
该社区与包括阿拉斯加土著部落健康组织在内的外部团体合作

Consortium, to design and engineer a villagethat would continue their culture of subsistence(29)
财团,设计并设计一个村庄,继续其生存文化

living off the land.(30)
在陆地上生活。

Cadiente says the fishing is better near Mertarvik.(31)
卡迪恩特说,在Mertarvik附近钓鱼更好。

ROMY CADIENTE: The folks didn't want to getintegrated into another village or move, because(32)
ROMY CADIENTE:人们不想融入另一个村庄或搬家,因为

they have been around this area for hundredsof years.(33)
他们在这个地区已经有数百年历史了。

They know where to fish, when the fish isrunning.(34)
他们知道什么时候钓鱼在哪里钓鱼。

They know where to hunt, when it's that timeof the year.(35)
他们知道一年中的那个时候在哪里狩猎。

So, just keeping their subsistence livelihoodintact, together with their culture, we wanted(36)
因此,我们希望保持他们的生计和文化的完整性,

to keep that alive for them.(37)
让他们活着。

STEPHANIE SY: The houses are more sustainable,harnessing renewable energy, and, with them,(38)
STEPHANIE SY:房屋更具可持续性,利用可再生能源,并且与他们一起,

the Yupik enter a new future, one that theyhope is healthier, and safer.(39)
Yupik进入了一个新的未来,他们希望它更健康,更安全。

ROMY CADIENTE: It's heartbreaking to see ahome, you know, that is almost being lost(40)
罗米·卡迪恩特(ROMY CADIENTE):令人沮丧的是,看到一所房屋几乎要丢失了

to the river, just scared families that don'tknow or don't -- and then you keep their tradition.(41)
到河边,只是害怕不知道或不知道的家庭-然后您就会保留他们的传统。

You keep their identity.(42)
您保留其身份。

STEPHANIE SY: Climate refugees, they havebeen called, but also survivors, and, in a(43)
STEPHANIE SY:气候难民,他们被称为难民,但还被称为幸存者,

way, pioneers.(44)
方式,开拓者。

The resettlement of the Yupik people has drawnin local, state and federal agencies from(45)
尤皮克人的重新安置已经从地方,州和联邦机构吸引

different fields and is far from over.(46)
不同领域,还远远没有结束。

One of the organizations helping to managethe relocation effort is the Alaska Native(47)
帮助管理搬迁工作的组织之一是阿拉斯加原住民

Tribal Health Consortium.(48)
部落卫生财团。

Gavin Dixon is the community development managerfor that group and joins me now from Anchorage.(49)
加文·迪克森(Gavin Dixon)是该小组的社区发展经理,现在从安克雷奇(Anchorage)加入我。

Gavin, you were in Mertarvik recently.(50)
加文,您最近来过Mertarvik。

Give us an idea of how people are settlingin.(51)
让我们了解人们如何适应。

GAVIN DIXON, Development Manager, Alaska NativeTribal Health Consortium: We have got about(52)
GAVIN DIXON,阿拉斯加土著部落健康协会发展经理:我们已经了解了

18 families moved in out there.(53)
18个家庭搬进了那里。

And people are settling into their new homesand, you know, getting used to more space(54)
人们正在安家落户,并且逐渐适应更多空间

in a new location.(55)
在新的位置。

And I think people are starting to embracetheir new home.(56)
而且我认为人们开始拥抱他们的新家。

STEPHANIE SY: How long will it take to fullyrelocate and resettle the entire community(57)
史蒂芬妮·SY:完全搬迁并重新安置整个社区需要多长时间

from Newtok?(58)
来自Newtok?

GAVIN DIXON: It depends a little bit on wheninvestment comes for additional housing and(59)
加文·迪克森(GAVIN DIXON):这在某种程度上取决于何时需要投资购买更多住房和

infrastructure in Mertarvik.(60)
Mertarvik的基础设施。

But we're forecasting, by 2023 relocatingthe entire population of Newtok to the new(61)
但我们预测,到2023年,将纽托克的全部人口迁移到新

site.(62)
现场。

STEPHANIE SY: There are communities aroundthe country and the world, as you know, facing(63)
STEPHANIE SY:众所周知,全国和世界各地都有社区

tough questions about whether to stay in flood-proneareas or relocate.(64)
有关是否要留在洪水多发地区或搬迁的棘手问题。

Where do you see that Yupik relocation modelfitting into the national conversation?(65)
您在哪里看到Yupik搬迁模型适合全国对话?

GAVIN DIXON: Well, I think Newtok is a communitythat's moving early, and doing it in advance(66)
加文·迪克森(GAVIN DIXON):好吧,我认为纽托克(Newtok)是一个社区,它正在尽早发展,并且需要提前进行

of the impacts of erosion.(67)
侵蚀的影响。

They're not the only community in rural Alaska.(68)
他们不是阿拉斯加农村地区唯一的社区。

There are many other communities, at least12 other communities, that are likely to face(69)
还有许多其他社区可能会面临至少其他12个社区

either a partial or full relocation due tothe impacts of flooding and erosion.(70)
由于洪水和侵蚀的影响,部分或全部搬迁。

But there's a lot more people in this countryand all over the world that face the same(71)
但是,在这个国家和全世界,有更多的人面对同样的情况

threats.(72)
威胁。

And it's not easy to move.(73)
而且移动起来并不容易。

And it's not just the challenges from a personallevel are very serious.(74)
不仅仅是个人层面的挑战非常严重。

The challenges from a technical design andconstruction level, especially in the Arctic(75)
技术设计和建造水平的挑战,尤其是在北极地区

and especially in rural Alaska, are very complicated.(76)
特别是在阿拉斯加农村,非常复杂。

STEPHANIE SY: What other challenges came outof this process of relocation that would be(77)
史蒂芬妮·席(STEPHANIE SY):这个搬迁过程带来了哪些其他挑战,那就是

informative to other communities facing thesame fate with climate change approaching?(78)
对其他面临同样命运的社区提供有益的信息吗?

GAVIN DIXON: I think some of the decisionsthat have been the most challenging are, how(79)
加文·迪克森(GAVIN DIXON):我认为一些最具挑战性的决定是

do you relocate, and then -- and how do youplan for something that happens slowly?(80)
您要搬迁,然后-以及如何计划发生缓慢的事情?

A lot of times, when a community faces a disaster,it's an event.(81)
很多时候,当社区面临灾难时,这是一个事件。

It's a tornado.(82)
这是龙卷风。

It's a hurricane.(83)
这是飓风。

It's an earthquake.(84)
这是地震。

And the effort to rebuild is based on thatspecific event.(85)
重建工作基于该特定事件。

But what happens when it's a slow-moving disaster,like erosion or persistent flooding?(86)
但是,如果是缓慢发展的灾难,例如侵蚀或持续性洪水,会发生什么?

And how do you plan for addressing a disasterlike that?(87)
您如何计划解决此类灾难?

And so Newtok has put a lot of effort intoplanning on a long time scale, what it's like(88)
因此,Newtok投入了大量精力进行长期规划,这是什么样的

to relocate the community, how they do it,what's the highest priority.(89)
重新安置社区,他们如何做到这一点,什么是最高优先级。

STEPHANIE SY: How much did the people, theYupik people, contribute to building this(90)
STEPHANIE SY:人民(Yupik人民)为建立这一点贡献了多少

new community?(91)
新社区?

GAVIN DIXON: An incredible amount.(92)
GAVIN DIXON:数量惊人。

More than half the construction crew has beena local work force out there.(93)
一半以上的施工人员已经在当地工作。

And the community has also put every dollarthat they can -- they can scrounge, from every(94)
社区也投入了他们可以赚到的每一美元-他们可以从

funding source they can imagine, includingtheir own tribally generated revenues, into(95)
他们可以想象的资金来源,包括他们自己从部落产生的收入,

building more housing for their people.(96)
为他们的人民建造更多的住房。

STEPHANIE SY: How much time do the folks thatare still in Newtok have to relocate before(97)
STEPHANIE SY:仍在纽托克的人们需要搬迁多少时间

their homes disappear into the sea?(98)
他们的房屋消失在海中?

GAVIN DIXON: In 2019, seven homes would havegone into the Ninglick River, if they had(99)
加文·迪克森(GAVIN DIXON):如果有的话,到2019年,七所房屋将进入Ninglick河

not been demolished in advance of the advancingerosion.(100)
不会在即将发生的侵蚀之前拆除。

Those homes, those residents have alreadyrelocated to the new site, but more homes(101)
这些房屋,那些居民已经搬迁到新地点,但是更多的房屋

lie in the way of the erosion that's encroachingabout 60 feet a year.(102)
在于每年侵蚀约60英尺的侵蚀方式。

The folks closest to the erosion have lesstime than others.(103)
最接近侵蚀的人比其他人有更少的时间。

We expect there's about four houses that couldbe potentially impacted in 2020.(104)
我们预计到2020年大约有四栋房屋可能受到影响。

We expect that the school, which is reallya central pillar of the community, will be(105)
我们希望这所学校实际上是社区的中心支柱,

impacted as soon as 2021 or 2022.(106)
最早在2021年或2022年受到影响。

And the airport, which is the community'sprimary transportation access, would be impacted(107)
作为社区主要交通通道的机场将受到影响

by 2023.(108)
到2023年。

One of the core tenets of the culture in Newtokis adaptability.(109)
适应性是纽托克文化的核心宗旨之一。

And I think that's a really important valuethat their community and their culture maintains(110)
我认为这是他们的社区和文化保持的非常重要的价值

to deal with a threat like climate change,a changing environment.(111)
应对气候变化,环境变化等威胁。

STEPHANIE SY: Gavin Dixon, the community developmentmanager with the Alaska Native Tribal Health(112)
STEPHANIE SY:阿拉斯加原住民部落健康社区发展经理Gavin Dixon

Consortium, Gavin, thank you so much.(113)
财团,加文,非常感谢。

GAVIN DIXON: Thank you.(114)
GAVIN DIXON:谢谢。


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