West Nile Virus Costs US $780 Million
2014-02-14 16:30:31


It’s been 14 years since West Nile Virus disease arrived in the United States.(1)
西尼罗河病毒病来到了美国,它已是 14 年。

A new study says the disease has cost about 780-million dollars in health care costs and lost productivity.(2)
一项新研究说: 这种疾病已成本约 7 亿 8000 万美金的卫生保健费用和损失的生产力。

Before 1999, West Nile Virus had not been detected outside the Eastern Hemisphere.(3)
在 1999 年之前西尼罗河病毒已未发现外面东半球。

That changed following reports in the U.S. of serious infections and deaths.(4)
更改之后,美国的严重感染和死亡的报告。

Dr. Erin Staples is a medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – and the lead author of the study, which appears in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.(5)
艾琳斯台普斯博士是研究的在疾病控制和预防 — — 和第一作者,将出现在美国热带医学杂志和卫生中心医学流行病学家。

She said the virus is carried by infected mosquitoes.(6)
她说: 这种病毒由受感染的蚊子。

“Once people get bitten and infected by the virus a fair proportion will actually not develop any symptoms.(7)
"人一旦咬伤而感染了病毒有公平的比例将实际上不出现任何症状。

But a proportion will go on to develop either a febrile illness with muscle aches and feeling generally unwell.(8)
但比例将继续发展与肌肉酸痛和一般身体不适的感觉或者发热性疾病。

And in a small proportion of people that get infected – they’ll go on to develop kind of a more severe presentation or clinical manifestations, which include what we call neuro-invasive disease.(9)
并在一小部分的人都被传染 — — 他们会去上制定更严厉的演示文稿或包括我们称之为侵入性神经疾病的临床表现的那种。

That means infections of the nervous system,” she said.(10)
这意味着中枢神经系统感染,"她说。

These include encephalitis, meningitis and acute flaccid paralysis, where part or all of the body is paralyzed.(11)
这些包括脑炎、 脑膜炎、 急性弛缓性麻痹,身体的部分或全部瘫痪了。

She said, “Anybody can be infected by West Nile Virus – anybody that’s going outdoors – potentially getting exposed to mosquitoes – can get infected.(12)
她说,"任何人都可以被感染西尼罗河病毒 — — 谁会户外活动 — — 有可能受到蚊子 — — 可受到感染。

But we tend to see kind of the more severe manifestation in people that are older than the age of 50.(13)
但我们往往看到的更严重表现在 50 岁以上的人种。

Otherwise, we’ve seen that some people with underlying medical conditions also might be at more risk for being hospitalized if they do get West Nile Virus infection and disease – as well as they’re more likely to potentially die due to the infection.”(14)
否则,我们已经看到有些人与基础医疗条件也可能正在住院治疗的更多风险如果他们做西尼罗河病毒感染和疾病 — — 以及他们就更有可能有可能死于感染"。

From its arrival through 2012, there have been more than 37,000 cases of West Nile Virus in the United States.(15)
从它至 2012 年的到来,一直西尼罗河病毒在美国超过 37,000 例。

“Following its introduction into the United States in 1999, it started in the Northeast and then spread across the country.(16)
"其介绍之后进入美国在 1999 年,它开始在东北部,然后蔓延至全国。

So by 2003 we had seen West Nile Virus disease occur from coast to coast.(17)
因此 2003 年我们已经看到西尼罗河病毒病发生从东海岸到西海岸。

And then since that time, we are considering it – what we call – an endemic disease, meaning that it will continue to occur,” said Staples.(18)
然后从那时起,我们现正考虑它 — — 我们称之为 — — 风土性疾病,也就是说它将会继续发生,"说钉书钉。

Of the more than 37,000 cases, over 1,500 patients died. About 16,000 patients had neurologic disease and over 18,000 required hospitalization.(19)
超过 37,000 的个案中,超过 1 500 名病人死了。约 1.6 万的病人有神经系统疾病和超过 18,000 需住院治疗。

“However,” Staples said, “we do expect that that is an underestimate of the number of people infected, as well as the number of people that might have gotten sick.(20)
"不过,"斯台普斯说,"我们期望这就是低估了感染者的人数,以及可能会有生病的人的数目。

And some of that is due to the fact that not everybody that gets sick will actually choose to go to the doctor and be seen for their symptoms, particularly, maybe the less severe manifestations or the fever with muscle aches.”(21)
的一些是由于这样一个事实,不是每个人获取病实际上会选择去看医生,并特别为他们的症状,看过,也许不那么严重的表现形式或发热肌肉痛。

There is a test for West Nile virus, usually using a blood sample or cerebral spinal fluid or the fluid around the brain. This may be done when patients show symptoms of neurological problems.(22)
有一个测试为西尼罗河病毒,通常使用左右大脑血液样本或脑脊髓液或流体。这可能会做当患者出现症状的神经问题。

Dr. Staples said that besides the health concerns, it’s also important to know the effects of the nearly $780-million cost of the disease.(23)
斯台普斯博士说其除了健康问题,也是重要的是要知道近 $7 亿 8000 万成本的这种疾病的影响。

“The reason we really wanted to do that is to allow different organizations – whether it be policymakers, public health or researchers in both academia and industry – to better assess and understand the impact West Nile Virus is having on them.(24)
"我们真的想要做的原因是允许不同组织 — — 无论是政策制定者、 公共卫生或在学术界和行业 — — 研究人员更好地评估和了解影响西尼罗河病毒对他们有。

Not only from the morbidity, the number of cases and the mortality, but also from the economic perspective.”(25)
从发病率、 死亡率及个案数目不仅从经济角度来看"。

Little is known about the long-term effects of West Nile Virus disease. There are no medications to treat it and no vaccines to prevent it.(26)
了解甚少西尼罗河病毒病的长期影响。没有药物治疗它和没有疫苗,以防止它。

Medical care can be expensive -- tens of thousands of dollars, for example, for those who suffer from partial or whole body paralysis.(27)
医疗服务可以是昂贵 — — 成千上万的美元,例如,对于那些遭受部分或整个的身体麻痹。

The study said patients who were hospitalized “were absent from work or school for a median 42 days.”(28)
研究称: 病人住院"缺席从工作或学校的中位数为 42 天."

The CDC epidemiologist said, “National surveillance efforts are critical in determining where and when outbreaks of mosquito or tick-borne diseases occur.”(29)
疾病预防控制中心流行病学家说,"国家监测工作,并确定何时、 何地发生的蚊子或蜱传疾病暴发的关键。

That allows health officials to react quickly and empty standing water areas where mosquitoes might breed or begin community insecticide spraying. Using insect repellent can also help.(30)
允许卫生官员能够作出迅速的反应和蚊子可能滋生或开始社区杀虫剂喷洒的空的常设水地区。此外可以帮助使用驱蚊剂。

The World Health Organization says the disease was first discovered in 1937 in the West Nile District of Uganda.(31)
世界  生组织说: 这种疾病在 1937 年首次发现在乌干达西尼罗河地区。


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