Explosive cheating scandal illuminates hidden inequities of college admissions
2019-03-14 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: The college admissions scandalthat was revealed this week has sparked conversations(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:本周公布的大学入学丑闻引发了对话

around the country, not just about the schemeitself, but much bigger questions about access,(2)
全国各地,不仅仅是计划本身,还有更大的访问问题,

race, class and inequality in higher education.(3)
高等教育中的种族,阶级和不平等。

On Tuesday, the FBI and Department of Justicedetailed a sweeping cheating and bribery scandal(4)
周二,联邦调查局和司法部详细介绍了一场大规模的欺诈和贿赂丑闻

involving parents and high-profile celebritiespaying big money to make sure their children(5)
涉及父母和知名人士支付大笔钱,以确保他们的孩子

could get into some of the most select universities.(6)
可以进入一些最精选的大学。

We explore some of the questions that thishas touched off with Daniel Golden.(7)
我们探讨了Daniel Golden带来的一些问题。

He is a senior editor at ProPublica and authorof "The Price of Admission: How America's(8)
他是ProPublica的高级编辑,也是“入学价格:美国如何”的作者

Ruling Class Buys Its Way into Elite Collegesand Who Gets Left Outside the Gates."(9)
统治阶级进入精英大学并走出盖茨之外。“

And Rashad Robinson is the president of ColorOf Change.(10)
Rashad Robinson是Color Of Change的总裁。

It's an organization focused on racial justice.(11)
这是一个专注于种族正义的组织。

Gentlemen, welcome to both you.(12)
先生们,欢迎你们。

Rashad Robinson, let me start with you.(13)
拉沙德罗宾逊,让我先谈谈你。

What do you think this scandal, as we said,involving parents and coaches and one particular(14)
正如我们所说,你认为这个丑闻涉及父母和教练以及一个特别的丑闻

consulting firm, says about inequality inAmerican higher education?(15)
咨询公司,谈到美国高等教育的不平等问题?

RASHAD ROBINSON, President, Color Of Change:I think it highlights a lot of things that(16)
RASHAD ROBINSON,总裁,变革之色:我认为它突出了许多事情

so many folks already knew, but also bringsto bear sort of a whole series of questions(17)
这么多人已经知道了,但也带来了一系列问题

about how large and how vast this is.(18)
关于它有多大和多大。

If someone like Mr. Singer could be able toget such access to coaches, to admissions(19)
如果像辛格先生这样的人能够获得教练和入学的机会

counselors, to parents, one has to imaginethis can't be the only person that sort of(20)
辅导员,对于父母来说,人们不得不想象这不可能是唯一的那种人

engaged in this type of behavior.(21)
从事这种行为。

And so I do think it's incredibly important,as we look at what's happened here, that we(22)
所以我认为这非常重要,因为我们看看这里发生了什么,我们

just don't think about the exposure of thisone single incidents, but think about all(23)
只是不要考虑这一单一事件的曝光,而是考虑一切

of the ways that the rules and the structureswithin the system have allowed this to happen.(24)
系统中的规则和结构允许这种情况发生的方式。

The schools, who have in many ways tried tokind of lay the blame elsewhere, have created(25)
这些学校在很多方面都试图将责任归咎于其他地方

systems and structures that make it easy forthese things to happen, having sort of the(26)
系统和结构,使这些事情很容易发生,有一些

option for access to polo and other sportsthat don't exist in urban communities, don't(27)
不参与城市社区中不存在的马球和其他运动的选择

exist sort of in wide ranges, and so alreadycreating tracks for rich students or wealthy,(28)
存在于广泛的范围内,因此已经为富有的学生或富有的人创造了轨道,

creating all of these avenues also for donations.(29)
为捐款创造所有这些途径。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And I want to ask you aboutthat, systems and structures.(30)
JUDY WOODRUFF:我想问你这个,系统和结构。

Daniel Golden, you wrote in your book aboutthe unfairness of many of the ways students(31)
Daniel Golden,你在书中写到了许多学生的不公平方式

of privilege were getting into elite colleges,others being left out.(32)
特权是进入精英大学,其他人被排除在外。

What parallels do you see, what differencesdo you see between what you wrote about in(33)
您看到了什么相似之处,您在所写内容之间看到了什么差异

2006 and what's happening right now?(34)
2006年和现在发生了什么?

DANIEL GOLDEN, ProPublica: Well, this is essentiallywhat I wrote about in my book, but taken to(35)
DANIEL GOLDEN,ProPublica:嗯,这基本上就是我在我的书中所写的内容,但却被带到了

a much more extreme level.(36)
更极端的水平。

I primarily wrote about donations to universitiesthat were used to facilitate admission of(37)
我主要写的是大学捐款,用于方便入学

these children of the rich and famous.(38)
这些富人和名人的孩子。

This is straight-out bribery.(39)
这是直截了当的贿赂行为。

You know, so I focused on institutional preferences,like legacy preference for children of alumni(40)
你知道,所以我专注于制度偏好,比如对校友子女的遗产偏好

who skew white and wealthy, or the athleticpreferences for upper-crust sports that were(41)
谁倾斜白人和富人,或上运动的运动偏好

just mentioned.(42)
刚提到。

This exposes those vulnerabilities, but italso goes way beyond that, in the most disturbing(43)
这暴露了这些漏洞,但在最令人不安的情况下,它也远远超出了这个漏洞

way.(44)
办法。

And the one thing it showcases that is particularlyinteresting is a sort of rise of these private(45)
而它展示的一件特别有趣的事情是这些私人的崛起

counselors, who are paid by the wealthy toget their kids into college.(46)
辅导员,由富人支付,让他们的孩子上大学。

And they're beholden to nobody, whereas aguidance counselors in a high school, they(47)
而且他们对任何人都感激不尽,而他们则是高中的辅导员

need to find the fit for all the students,what's the best college for this or that student.(48)
需要找到适合所有学生,适合这个或那个学生的最好的大学。

These counselors are simply, at the behestof the wealthy, going as far as they can to(49)
这些辅导员只是在富人的要求下,尽可能地去做

get kids into college.(50)
让孩子上大学。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Rashad Robinson, whether itis donations by parents with large financial(51)
JUDY WOODRUFF:Rashad Robinson,无论是有大笔资金的父母的捐款

means, or whether it is the rise of, as DanielGolden says, private counselors, is there(52)
意味着,或者正如Daniel Golden所说,私人顾问是否会出现

a growing gap in this country between whatsome students and their families are capable(53)
在这个国家,一些学生和他们的家庭之间的差距越来越大

of doing to get into schools and what othersare capable of doing?(54)
进入学校以及其他人有能力做什么?

RASHAD ROBINSON: Well, it absolutely followsthe growing inequality we see in this country,(55)
RASHAD ROBINSON:嗯,它绝对跟随我们在这个国家看到的日益严重的不平等,

in the way that policies, from huge tax cuts,to the sort of lack of access to quality education(56)
从政策的角度来看,从巨额减税到缺乏获得优质教育的途径

in high school and elementary school, thefact that the kind of funding of our schools(57)
在高中和小学,我们学校的那种资金这一事实

travels along racial lines in so many ways.(58)
在很多方面沿着种族划线旅行。

And since 1980 in this country, schools havebecome more and more segregated,.(59)
自1980年以来,这个国家的学校越来越多地被隔离开来。

And so the opportunity that folks have oncethey leave those schools to get into or be(60)
因此,一旦他们离开那些学校进入或成为他们的机会

seen by elite schools or colleges as a whole,all of that sort of plays into this.(61)
整个精英学校或大学都看到了这一切。

But once students get to these schools, sortof the ways that black students are sort of(62)
但是,一旦学生进入这些学校,就像黑人学生那样

looked at and questioned about whether ornot they belong there, all the while so many(63)
看着并质疑他们是否属于那里,一直这么多

of these big institutions accept more legacystudents than they do accept black students,(64)
这些大型学院接受的学生比接受黑人学生的学生多,

provide access to folks who have already -- whoseparents have already gotten through the door.(65)
提供访问已经 - 他们的父母已经通过门的人。

And they're only getting through that doorafter their parents, not from what they have(66)
而且他们只是在父母之后穿过那扇门,而不是从他们拥有的东西

achieved on their own.(67)
靠自己实现。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And that raises, Daniel Golden,something you wrote about this week.(68)
JUDY WOODRUFF:这就是Daniel Golden,你本周写的一些东西。

And that is, while the number of -- the actualnumber of legacies -- or, I guess, the percentage(69)
也就是说,虽然数量 - 实际的遗产数量 - 或者,我猜,这个百分比

of legacies may be shrinking, you still havea problem with an advantage that students(70)
遗产可能正在萎缩,你仍然有一个问题,学生的优势

coming from families of means have over otherstudents.(71)
来自家庭的手段超过其他学生。

Is there a racial component to that?(72)
这有种族成分吗?

DANIEL GOLDEN: There is a racial component.(73)
DANIEL GOLDEN:有种族成分。

The legacy preference for alumni childrendisproportionately benefits whites.(74)
对校友儿童的遗产偏好不成比例地使白人受益。

And the proportion of legacy students at eliteuniversities can be anywhere from 10 percent(75)
精英大学的遗留学生比例可以达到10%

to 20 percent of the student body, or evenhigher.(76)
占学生人数的20%,甚至更高。

And combined with these other preferences,like those for the sort of aristocratic white(77)
并结合这些其他偏好,如那些贵族白人

sports, for development admits, who are kidsof non-alumni who are rich and prepared to(78)
体育,发展承认,谁是非富有和准备的非校友的孩子

donate, and other preferences can be a lotbigger percentage than that.(79)
捐赠,和其他偏好可以比这更大的百分比。

And people tend to criticize traditional affirmativeaction in a vacuum, as if the rest of the(80)
人们倾向于在真空中批评传统的肯定行动,就像其他人一样

system were merit-based, and affirmative actionwas the only preference that interferes with(81)
系统是基于绩效的,肯定行动是唯一干预的偏好

that.(82)
那。

But, actually, you know, it's dwarfed by thecombined prevalence of these other preferences(83)
但是,实际上,你知道,这些其他偏好的综合盛行使其相形见绌

that favor the rich and the white.(84)
有利于富人和白人。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Only about a minute left, butI want to ask each one of you very quickly,(85)
JUDY WOODRUFF:还有一分钟左右,但我想很快问你们每个人,

what more needs to be done by these schools?(86)
这些学校还需要做些什么?

Because a number of these elite schools wouldsay they are trying to balance the students(87)
因为这些精英学校中的一些学校会说他们正试图平衡学生

they accept, that they're trying to get morestudents accepted and into their college population(88)
他们接受,他们试图让更多的学生接受并进入他们的大学人口

who come from backgrounds that are not privileged.(89)
谁来自非特权的背景。

What needs to be done, Rashad Robinson?(90)
需要做什么,拉沙德罗宾逊?

RASHAD ROBINSON: Until these schools put evena percentage of effort into equity and fairness(91)
RASHAD ROBINSON:直到这些学校将一定比例的努力投入公平和公平

as they do into capturing that $1 millionor $2 million donation from the parent with(92)
正如他们从父母那里获得100万美元或200万美元的捐款一样

the kid with the 2.0 GPA who shouldn't bein their school, we're going to continue to(93)
拥有2.0 GPA的孩子不应该在他们的学校,我们将继续

have these problems over and over again.(94)
一遍又一遍地遇到这些问题。

But be really clear that, as this countrychanges and as diversity changes, organizations(95)
但要明确的是,随着这个国家的变化和多样性的变化,组织

like mine and others will be raising our voicesand holding those institutions accountable.(96)
像我一样,其他人会提高我们的声音并让这些机构承担责任。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And, Daniel Golden, how doyou see what needs to be done?(97)
JUDY WOODRUFF:而且,Daniel Golden,你怎么看待需要做什么?

DANIEL GOLDEN: Well, I would love to see afundamental revamping of college admissions(98)
DANIEL GOLDEN:嗯,我很想看到大学录取的根本改进

preferences.(99)
喜好。

I would eliminate legacy preference.(100)
我会消除遗产偏好。

I would eliminate preference for athletesin sports that most kids don't get a chance(101)
我会消除对大多数孩子没有机会的运动员的偏爱

to participate in.(102)
参加。

And, in response to this particular scandal,I would advocate regulation and licensing(103)
而且,为了应对这一特殊丑闻,我会提倡监管和许可

of private college counselors, and obviouslygreater attention paid to recruited athletes(104)
私立大学辅导员,显然更加关注招募的运动员

in terms of whether their profiles are legitimateor not.(105)
就他们的个人资料是否合法而言。

This case seems to show that their admissionis more or less rubber-stamped, while they're(106)
这个案子似乎表明,他们的录取或多或少是橡皮图章,而他们是

-- when they're recommended by the coach,and that should change too.(107)
- 当他们被教练推荐时,那也应该改变。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Well, it is a big subject,and one that we're going to continue to look(108)
JUDY WOODRUFF:嗯,这是一个很大的主题,我们将继续关注

at as the conversation continues.(109)
在谈话继续。

Thank you both very much.(110)
非常感谢你们。

Daniel Golden and Rashad Robinson, thank you.(111)
Daniel Golden和Rashad Robinson,谢谢。

DANIEL GOLDEN: Thanks for having me.(112)
DANIEL GOLDEN:谢谢你拥有我。


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