In the U.S., 30 to 40 percent of food is wasted. California aims to change that
2019-11-27 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: For many of us, the Thanksgivingmeal is one of the most beloved culinary traditions(1)
朱迪·伍德鲁夫(JUDY WOODRUFF):对我们许多人来说,感恩节大餐是最受欢迎的烹饪传统之一

of the year.(2)
的一年。

But that feast usually ends with plentifulleftovers, and then some.(3)
但是,这一盛宴通常以大量剩菜剩饭结束,然后是一些剩饭。

That extra some, so to speak, often ends upin the garbage and adds to the much larger(4)
可以这么说,这些多余的东西通常最终会变成垃圾,并增加了更多

problem of food waste in this country.(5)
这个国家的食物浪费问题。

That makes it a good time to look at the burgeoningmovement to rethink our attitudes and approach(6)
这是个很好的时机,可以看看新兴的运动,以重新思考我们的态度和方法

about all of this.(7)
关于这一切。

Special correspondent Allison Aubrey of NPRshowed us the depth of the problem in previous(8)
NPR的特别通讯员Allison Aubrey向我们展示了问题的深度

reports.(9)
报告。

And she's back for a special series this week.(10)
她本周将返回特别系列。

Allison, welcome.(11)
艾莉森,欢迎。

ALLISON AUBREY: Hi there.(12)
ALLISON AUBREY:嗨。

Good to be here, Judy.(13)
很高兴来到这里,朱迪。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And it's good to have you back.(14)
JUDY WOODRUFF:很高兴您回来。

So, the numbers are staggering.(15)
因此,数字是惊人的。

Something like 30 to 40 percent of the foodwe produce never makes it to the table.(16)
我们生产的食物中大约30%至40%的食物永远不会摆在桌子上。

ALLISON AUBREY: That's right.(17)
ALLISON AUBREY:是的。

And when these numbers were first documentedseveral years ago, the reaction was, how could(18)
几年前首次记录这些数字时,反应是,

this be?(19)
这是吗?

This is insane, right?(20)
太疯狂了吧?

Now, two years later, there are all kindsof solutions being tried all over the country.(21)
两年后的现在,全国各地都在尝试各种解决方案。

For instance, we visited farmers in Massachusetts.(22)
例如,我们拜访了马萨诸塞州的农民。

They are taking food waste, streams of foodthat can't be eaten, and turning it into electricity,(23)
他们正在浪费食物,无法食用的食物流并将其转化为电能,

into renewable energy.(24)
转化为可再生能源。

Now, we start the series in California.(25)
现在,我们在加利福尼亚开始这个系列。

That's because the state is really leadingthe way.(26)
那是因为国家确实处于领先地位。

I traveled with producer Mary Beth Durkinaround the state.(27)
我和制片人玛丽·贝丝·杜尔金一起在全州旅行。

And here's what we found.(28)
这就是我们发现的东西。

When we first came to Salinas Valley fouryears ago, we saw walls of leafy greens being(29)
四年前,当我们第一次来到萨利纳斯山谷时,我们看到绿树成荫的墙壁

tossed away.(30)
扔掉。

And it's still happening.(31)
而且它还在发生。

On peak days, up to 200 tons of produce isheaded to this dump.(32)
在高峰期,多达200吨的农产品将流向该垃圾场。

It's all surplus from nearby farms and packagingfacilities.(33)
这些都是附近农场和包装设施的剩余。

One reason these greens end up here is becausethey weren't shipped in time to give grocers(34)
这些果岭落在这里的原因之一是因为它们没有及时运到杂货店

enough shelf time to sell them.(35)
有足够的货架时间出售它们。

But it was these plastic bags that reallyfrustrated Cesar Zuniga.(36)
但是正是这些塑料袋才让塞萨尔·祖尼加(Cesar Zuniga)感到沮丧。

He's the facility's waste manager.(37)
他是工厂的废物经理。

CESAR ZUNIGA, Operations Manager, SalinasValley Solid Waste Facility: It's sad to receive(38)
CESAR祖尼加,运营经理,萨利纳斯山谷固体废物处理设施:这是可悲的接收

all this material and not put it to betteruse.(39)
所有这些材料,而不是更好地使用。

The plastic makes, it hard to compost as well,because you shred the plastic with the organics,(40)
塑料也很难堆肥,因为您将有机物切碎了塑料,

it contaminates the compost.(41)
它污染了堆肥。

ALLISON AUBREY: All this used to be tossedin a landfill, where it would rot and emit(42)
ALLISON AUBREY:所有这些过去都被扔进垃圾填埋场,在那里会腐烂并散发出来

methane, a greenhouse gas.(43)
甲烷,一种温室气体。

But Cesar Zuniga says there's a new solution.(44)
但是塞萨尔·祖尼加(Cesar Zuniga)说,有一个新的解决方案。

Look at all that lettuce.(45)
看看所有的生菜。

And it's all in plastic.(46)
都是塑料的。

CESAR ZUNIGA: Yes, it's all film plastic.(47)
CESAR ZUNIGA:是的,都是塑料薄膜。

This is the same stuff we saw four years ago.(48)
这是我们四年前看到的东西。

Now we have this machine, the debagger, whichseparates that film plastic from the lettuce.(49)
现在我们有了这台机器,debagger,它将塑料薄膜和生菜分开。

ALLISON AUBREY: All of that bagged lettucegoes in here.(50)
ALLISON AUBREY:所有的袋装生菜都放在这里。

CESAR ZUNIGA: As you can see, it's being separated.(51)
CESAR ZUNIGA:正如您所看到的,它正在分离。

ALLISON AUBREY: Oh, yes.(52)
艾里森·奥布里:哦,是的。

CESAR ZUNIGA: The plastic is coming out here.(53)
CESAR ZUNIGA:塑料在这里出来。

And if you walk around the corner here, youwill see the organic materials coming out(54)
如果您走到这里的拐角处,就会看到有机物质的涌现

on this side into this container here.(55)
在这一侧放入这里的容器中。

ALLISON AUBREY: Whoa.(56)
ALLISON AUBREY:哇。

Look at that.(57)
看那个。

It's like a slurry.(58)
就像泥浆一样。

CESAR ZUNIGA: We call it a salsa.(59)
CESAR ZUNIGA:我们称其为莎莎酱。

ALLISON AUBREY: Oh, so a salsa of wasted lettuce.(60)
ALLISON AUBREY:哦,这么浪费的生菜莎莎酱。

So here is where you take all that lettuceslurry and turn it into something more valuable?(61)
那么在这里,您将所有的莴苣浆都拿来变成更有价值的东西?

CESAR ZUNIGA: After we debag the materialand get the slurry out of it, we will mix(62)
CESAR ZUNIGA:将材料装袋并从中取出浆液后,我们将进行混合

it with the material that's behind us andcompost it.(63)
用我们后面的材料堆肥。

ALLISON AUBREY: So, you're turning into compostand then selling it back to farmers?(64)
ALLISON AUBREY:那么,您正在变成堆肥,然后将其卖给农民?

CESAR ZUNIGA: Yes.(65)
CESAR ZUNIGA:是的。

We sell it back to farmers, and they placeit back on the agricultural lands to grow(66)
我们将其卖给农民,然后又放回农田种植

more produce for us.(67)
为我们提供更多产品。

ALLISON AUBREY: So it's a real reuse, recycle.(68)
ALLISON AUBREY:这是真正的重用,回收。

And composting can reduce or prevent the releaseof methane as these greens break down.(69)
随着这些蔬菜的分解,堆肥可以减少或防止甲烷的释放。

This is beneficial because methane is a significantcontributor to greenhouse gas emissions and(70)
这是有益的,因为甲烷是导致温室气体排放的重要因素,并且

a factor in climate change.(71)
气候变化的一个因素。

In addition to composting, recovering ediblefood before it makes it to a landfill is another(72)
除了堆肥之外,在将食用食品运往垃圾填埋场之前对其进行回收也是另一回事。

effective way to prevent food waste.(73)
防止食物浪费的有效方法。

In the coming year, California will roll outnew regulations that require food businesses,(74)
来年,加利福尼亚将推出要求食品企业的新法规,

like grocery stores and wholesale distributors,to donate their edible food waste.(75)
像杂货店和批发分销商一样,捐赠他们的可食用食物垃圾。

By 2022, if they don't comply, businessescould be fined.(76)
到2022年,如果不遵守规定,企业将被罚款。

DANA GUNDERS, Next Course: Right now, theeasiest thing to do is to just throw whatever(77)
DANA GUNDERS,下一门课程:现在,最简单的方法是将任何东西扔出去

food you have out.(78)
你有食物。

So, with this new law, it's forcing peopleto take that extra effort.(79)
因此,有了这项新法律,它迫使人们付出额外的努力。

And that exercise, in itself, helps peopleto reduce the amount of surplus they're creating.(80)
这项工作本身可以帮助人们减少所创造的剩余数量。

ALLISON AUBREY: That's Dana Gunders, who helpedput the issue of food waste on the map back(81)
ALLISON AUBREY:那是Dana Gunders,他帮助把食物浪费的问题放在地图上

in 2012 with a report that documented justhow much goes to waste.(82)
在2012年发布了一份报告,其中记录了浪费多少。

The state of California is also expandinggrants to nonprofits to recover all of this(83)
加利福尼亚州也正在扩大对非营利组织的赠款,以收回所有这一切

surplus food that may have just gone to waste,in order to feed hungry people.(84)
为了养活饥饿的人们,可能已经浪费掉的多余食物。

RICH NAHMIAS, Food Forward: Millions of poundsof produce a year.(85)
里奇·纳西米斯(RICH NAHMIAS),《前进的粮食》:每年几百万磅的农产品。

ALLISON AUBREY: One group leading the wayis called Food Forward.(86)
ALLISON AUBREY:引领潮流的一个小组称为“食品前锋”。

It's run by Rich Nahmias.(87)
由Rich Nahmias经营。

Collecting food donations is nothing new,but what you see here is taking it to a whole(88)
收集粮食捐赠并不是什么新鲜事,但是您在这里看到的却是一个整体

new level.(89)
新水平。

RICK NAHMIAS: It's the quantity that's kindof amazing.(90)
RICK NAHMIAS:数量惊人。

We have got melons, kale, watermelon, cornin the back.(91)
我们后面有瓜,羽衣甘蓝,西瓜,玉米。

It's like a supermarket.(92)
就像一家超市。

ALLISON AUBREY: Thanks to a $500,000 grantfrom the state, Nahmias bought this warehouse(93)
ALLISON AUBREY:多亏该州提供了$ 500,000美元的赠款,Nahmias买下了这个仓库

equipped with a refrigerator that can holdup to 150,000 pounds of produce.(94)
配备可容纳15万磅农产品的冰箱。

All of this will double the amount of foodhe can recover.(95)
所有这一切将使他可以恢复的食物数量增加一倍。

RICK NAHMIAS: People just don't understandthe scale of overproduction.(96)
RICK NAHMIAS:人们只是不了解生产过剩的规模。

And there is no one in, let's say, fruit andveggie land control tower figuring out exactly(97)
可以说,没有人在水果和蔬菜土地控制塔中准确地弄清楚

where the stuff should be going and comingfrom.(98)
这些东西应该从哪里来。

So, the result is waste.(99)
因此,结果是浪费。

ALLISON AUBREY: He's out to change this.(100)
ALLISON AUBREY:他出去改变了。

Food Forward has developed a sophisticatedsystem to match the wholesalers who have surplus(101)
Food Forward开发了一套完善的系统来匹配有剩余的批发商

produce to give away with the people who needit.(102)
放弃需要的人。

And, this year, they will distribute foodto 1,800 hunger relief agencies in Southern(103)
并且,今年,他们将向南部的1,800个饥饿救济机构分发食物

California.(104)
加利福尼亚

A lot of the surplus comes from farms, farmersmarkets and right here, the L.A. Wholesale(105)
大量盈余来自农场,农贸市场以及这里的LA Wholesale

Food Market.(106)
食品市场。

We woke up at 5:00 a.m. to check it out.(107)
我们在凌晨5:00醒来检查了一下。

Do you have any deals yet this morning?(108)
今天早上有什么优惠吗?

LUIS YEPIZ, Food Forward: Yes.(109)
LUIS YEPIZ,《食品转发》:是的。

Right now, we just got offered eight palletsof peaches, 14,000 to 15,000 pounds of peaches.(110)
现在,我们刚得到了八托盘的桃子,14,000至15,000磅的桃子。

ALLISON AUBREY: Whoa.(111)
ALLISON AUBREY:哇。

That's a lot.(112)
好多啊。

LUIS YEPIZ: Yes.(113)
LUIS YEPIZ:是的。

ALLISON AUBREY: Luis Yepiz is part of theFood Forward operation team.(114)
ALLISON AUBREY:Luis Yepiz是Food Forward业务团队的成员。

And his job is to nag vendors who are gettingready to toss stuff out.(115)
他的工作是to那些准备扔掉东西的供应商。

By 6:00 a.m., Yepiz has recovered close to80,000 pounds of produce.(116)
到6:00上午,Yepiz已回收了将近80,000磅的农产品。

So, why would any of these vendors be offeringyou donations?(117)
那么,为什么这些供应商会向您提供捐赠呢?

What's wrong with this produce?(118)
这个产品怎么了?

LUIS YEPIZ: A lot of the produce that getsdonated gets donated mostly because there's(119)
路易斯·叶皮兹(LUIS YEPIZ):许多捐赠的产品得到捐赠的主要原因是

minor imperfections.(120)
小瑕疵。

ALLISON AUBREY: And that's not the only reason.(121)
ALLISON AUBREY:这不是唯一的原因。

LUIS YEPIZ: They told me it was these palletsright here, that pallet, this pallet, all(122)
LUIS YEPIZ:他们告诉我,这是这些货盘,那个货盘,这个货盘,全部

these pallets right here.(123)
这些货盘就在这里。

ALLISON AUBREY: Wow.(124)
艾莉森·奥布里:哇。

All going to waste?(125)
都浪费了吗?

LUIS YEPIZ: They haven't been sold yet.(126)
LUIS YEPIZ:尚未出售。

And they have a new shipment of peaches comingin.(127)
他们有一批新的桃子进来。

So they want to get rid of them before theyhave to throw them away.(128)
因此,他们希望在必须将它们扔掉之前摆脱它们。

The issue with this particular box of peaches,that there is some decay.(129)
这个特殊的桃子盒的问题是有一些腐烂。

ALLISON AUBREY: But some of them are good,so you don't want to throw away the whole(130)
ALLISON AUBREY:但是其中一些很好,所以您不想扔掉全部

box.(131)
框。

LUIS YEPIZ: Unfortunately, this particularcompany is short on refrigerated space.(132)
LUIS YEPIZ:不幸的是,这家公司的冷藏空间不足。

They want to donate them.(133)
他们想捐赠他们。

ALLISON AUBREY: By 10:00 a.m., these peachesand all the other produce are loaded onto(134)
ALLISON AUBREY:在上午10:00之前,这些桃子和所有其他产品都已装载到

this truck.(135)
这辆卡车。

First stop, Resurrection Church in East L.A.Families are lined up waiting.(136)
第一站,东洛杉矶家庭的复活教堂排队等候。

Back at the wholesale market, I asked Yepizif he's worried about not having enough food.(137)
回到批发市场,我问叶皮兹是否担心食物不足。

LUIS YEPIZ: There is definitely enough foodin Los Angeles and in the local food systems(138)
LUIS YEPIZ:洛杉矶和当地的食物系统中肯定有足够的食物

that we are definitely able to feed everyonein Southern California.(139)
我们绝对有能力养活南加州的每个人。

The issue is not necessarily with the foodbeing available.(140)
问题不一定是有可用的食物。

It's a distribution problem.(141)
这是一个分配问题。

ALLISON AUBREY: Getting it to the people inneed.(142)
ALLISON AUBREY:将其提供给需要帮助的人。

LUIS YEPIZ: Yes.(143)
LUIS YEPIZ:是的。

It's just a logistics problem.(144)
这只是物流问题。

So, you got to create the bridges betweenthe abundance and the people in need.(145)
因此,您必须在富裕人士和需要帮助的人之间建立桥梁。

ALLISON AUBREY: A logistics problem that Nahmiashas a fix for.(146)
ALLISON AUBREY:Nahmias可以解决的物流问题。

He's got new software to help track the enormousamounts of produce they're moving in and out.(147)
他拥有新的软件来帮助跟踪他们进出的大量农产品。

RICK NAHMIAS: We're able to track food inreal time, we're able to see where the trucks(148)
RICK NAHMIAS:我们能够实时跟踪食物,我们能够看到卡车在哪里

are at, what is on each truck, where it'scoming from, where it's going.(149)
在什么地方,每辆卡车上的东西是什么,它来自哪里,要去哪里。

And it's allowed us to scale.(150)
它使我们能够扩展。

ALLISON AUBREY: And that scale is what's needed.(151)
ALLISON AUBREY:就是需要这种规模。

California is not the only state taking action.(152)
加利福尼亚不是唯一采取行动的州。

Five states and five cities have restrictionsaimed at diverting food waste from landfills.(153)
五个州和五个城市对从垃圾掩埋场转移食物垃圾有限制。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Allison Aubreyof NPR News in Los Angeles.(154)
对于“ PBS NewsHour”,我是洛杉矶NPR新闻的Allison Aubrey。


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