Jefferson Moves to Cut Debt, Spending - Pgm No. 32
2013-05-09 00:30:50


From VOA Learning English, welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION, our weekly program of American history - for people learning English. I’m Steve Ember.(1)
从美国之音学习英语,学习英语的人欢迎来到制作的国家,美国历史-我们每周的节目。我是史帝文安博。

In our last program, we talked about President Thomas Jefferson’s decisions about who would be in his new government.(2)
在我们最后的程序中,我们谈到谁会在他的新政府的总统托马斯 · 杰斐逊的决定。

Jefferson was the leader of a new political party, the Republican Party.(3)
杰斐逊是政党的一个新,共和党的领袖。

But not the Republican Party we know today; in fact, Jefferson's party laid the roots for today's Democratic Party.(4)
但今天 ; 我们知道不,共和党事实上,杰佛逊的一方为今天的民主党奠定了根。

During the election of 1800, the Jeffersonian Republicans struggled bitterly with the opposition party, the Federalists. Jefferson won that election.(5)
选举期间的 1800年,杰斐逊主义共和党人苦苦挣扎着与反对派一方,联邦主义者。杰斐逊赢得这次选举。

In his inaugural address of 1801, he said he wanted to work with the Federalists for the good of the nation.(6)
1801 的就职演说,他说他想要的联邦主义为国家的利益与工作。

But he chose no Federalists for his cabinet. All the cabinet officers were strong Republicans. All were loyal to Thomas Jefferson.(7)
但他选择了没有联邦主义者为他的内阁。所有的内阁官员被强大的共和党人。所有都忠于托马斯 · 杰斐逊。

Once President Jefferson formed his cabinet, he began planning the policies of his administration.(8)
一旦总统杰斐逊形成他的内阁,他开始规划他的政府的政策。

“Jefferson, of course, thought central government should be almost invisible. He saw its prime role as acting as a referee between the states. He wanted to keep it to a minimum.”(9)
"杰斐逊,当然,以为中央政府应几乎看不见。他看到了其主要的作用,充当裁判国家之间。他想把它减至最低。

Andrew O’Shaughnessy directs a center for Jefferson studies at Monticello, Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia.(10)
郑家富肖内西指导研究中心杰斐逊在蒙蒂塞洛,托马斯 · 杰斐逊在弗吉尼亚州的家。

He says Jefferson was especially concerned about the public debt. In the first year of Jefferson’s presidency, the government owed millions of dollars.(11)
他说杰斐逊是特别关注的公共债务。杰斐逊的担任主席的第一年,政府欠了数以百万计的美元。

Each year, the debt grew larger because of the interest charged on these loans. Jefferson wanted to balance the budget.(12)
每年,债务增长更大,因为这些贷款收取的利息。杰斐逊想要平衡预算。

Jefferson discussed his financial policy with his two closest advisers. The advisers were Secretary of State James Madison and Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin.(13)
杰斐逊与他两个最亲密的顾问讨论他的财政政策。顾问是国务卿詹姆斯 · 麦迪逊和库务司司长陈伟业加拉廷。

The men agreed that the government must stop spending as much money as it did under former president John Adams.(14)
两名男子同意政府必须停止支出尽可能多的钱在前总统约翰 · 亚当斯下一样。

And they agreed that the government must pay its debts as quickly as possible.(15)
他们商定,政府必须尽可能快地偿还债务。

Albert Gallatin said: We must have a strong policy. The debt must be paid. If we do not do this, our children, our grandchildren, and many generations to come will have to pay for our mistakes.(16)
Albert Gallatin said:我们必须有强有力的政策。必须支付债务。如果我们不这样做,我们的孩子、 我们的子孙和许多代人来将必须为我们的错误付出代价。

Jefferson began saving money by cutting unnecessary jobs in the executive branch. He reduced the number of ambassadors. And he dismissed all the tax inspectors.(17)
杰斐逊开始存钱的削减不必要的岗位在行政部门。他减少了大使。他解雇所有税务稽查员。

Congress would have to take the next steps. Most government offices, Jefferson said, were created by laws of Congress. Congress alone must act on these positions.(18)
国会必须采取下一步骤。大多数政府办事处,杰佛逊说,被创造了由国会的法律。在这些职位上,只有国会必须采取行动。

The citizens of the United States have paid for these jobs with their taxes. It is not right or just for the government to take more than it needs from the people.(19)
美国的公民有支付这些作业与他们的税。它不是正确或只是为了政府采取更多比它所需要的人。

President Jefferson also wanted to cut taxes on the production and sale of some products, including whiskey and tobacco.(20)
杰斐逊总统还想要削减的生产和销售的一些产品,包括威士忌酒和烟草的税收。

He hoped the government could get all the money it needed from import taxes and from the sale of public lands.(21)
他希望政府能得到它所需要的所有的钱从进口税和公共土地的出售。

The Federalists were furious. They warned that Jefferson’s financial program would crush the nation. They declared there would be anarchy if Federalist officials were dismissed.(22)
联邦主义者感到愤怒。他们警告杰斐逊的财务程序将粉碎的国家。他们宣布会有无政府状态,如果联邦官员而被解雇。

Most people, however, were happy. They liked what Jefferson said. They especially liked his plan to cut taxes.(23)
然而,大多数人都快乐。他们喜欢杰斐逊说什么。他们特别喜欢他的计划削减税收。

Jefferson's biggest critic was his long-time political opponent, Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton had served as the nation's first treasury secretary.(24)
杰斐逊的最大的批评是他长期的政治对手,亚历山大 ・ 哈密尔顿。哈密尔顿曾担任国家的第一个库务司。

Now, he was a private lawyer in New York City. He published his criticism of Jefferson in a newspaper he started, the New York Evening Post.(25)
现在,他是一名私人律师在纽约城。他在报纸上他开始,纽约晚报发表了他的杰斐逊的批评。

In Congress, elected officials also debated the president's proposal to cut taxes. Federalists said it was dangerous for the government to depend mainly on import taxes.(26)
在国会,民选的官员还讨论了主席的提议,以削减税收。联邦主义者说这很危险,政府主要依靠进口税收。

They said such a policy would lead to smuggling. People would try to bring goods into the United States secretly, without paying customs fees on them.(27)
他们说这种政策将会导致的走私活动。人们将尝试使货物进入美国秘密,不支付他们的海关费用。

Federalists also said that if the United States cut taxes, it would not have enough money to pay its debts. Then no one would want to invest in the United States again.(28)
联邦主义者还说是否美国削减税收,它将没有足够的钱来偿还债务。再没有人会想要重新投资在美国。

Republicans said they were not afraid of smugglers. The danger, they said, would come from taxing the American people. There was no need for production and sales taxes.(29)
共和党人说他们也不害怕的走私者。危险,他们说,将来自征税的美国人。那里是没有需要生产和销售的税收。

And, they said, the American people knew it. The Republicans also said they were sure the government would have enough money to pay its debts.(30)
而且,他们说,美国人民知道它。共和党人也说他们相信政府会有足够的钱来偿还债务。

The Republicans won this legislative fight. Both the Senate and the House of Representatives voted to approve the president's plan to cut taxes.(31)
共和党人赢得了这一立法斗争。参议院和众议院的代表投票批准总统的计划,以削减税收。

Congress also had another of Jefferson’s proposals to debate. Jefferson wanted to reduce the number of federal courts.(32)
国会也有杰斐逊的提案的辩论的另一项。杰斐逊想要减少的联邦法院。

The issue had roots in the political divisions between the Federalist and Republican parties. And it started in the closing days of the previous president’s term.(33)
这一问题有根在联邦主义者和共和党各方之间的政治分歧。它在以前总统任期的最后几天开始。

John Adams was a Federalist. Before Adams left office, Congress passed a Judiciary Act. This act gave Adams the power to appoint as many judges as he wished.(34)
约翰 · 亚当斯是联邦制。亚当斯在离开办公室前,国会通过了一项司法行为。这次行动给亚当斯任命如他所愿的许多法官的权力。

The act was a way for the Federalists to keep control of one branch of government after losing the presidency and their majority in Congress in the election of 1800..(35)
该行为是 1800年的联邦主义者失去总统和他们的多数人在国会选举后保持控制政府的一个分支的一种方式...

So, President Adams quickly created new courts and named new judges. Just as quickly, the Senate approved them. The papers of appointment were signed.(36)
所以,总统亚当斯快速创建新的法院,并命名为新的法官。只是那么迅速,参议院批准他们。任命文件签署。

The appointed men were known as "midnight judges."(37)
委任的男子被称为"午夜的法官"。

However, some of the midnight judges did not receive their papers, or commissions, before Thomas Jefferson was sworn into office. The new president refused to give them their commissions.(38)
然而,一些午夜法官没有收到他们的论文或佣金之前托马斯 · 杰斐逊月宣誓就职。新总统拒绝给他们他们的佣金。

Federalist congressmen claimed that the president was trying to interfere with the judiciary. This interference, they said, violated the Constitution.(39)
联邦国会议员声称总统试图干涉司法机构。这种干涉,他们说,违反了宪法 》。

Republican congressmen argued that the Constitution gave Congress the power to create and eliminate courts. They said the former administration had no right to appoint the so-called "midnight judges."(40)
共和党国会议员辩称宪法 》 赋予国会创建和消除法院的权力。他们说前, 政府无权任命的所谓"午夜的法官"。

The Republicans won this argument, too. Congress approved President Jefferson's proposal to reduce the federal courts.(41)
共和党人赢得了这一论点,太。美国国会批准总统杰斐逊的建议,以减少联邦法院。

Congress then turned to other business. But the question of the midnight judges would not die. One reason the issue remained important was because of a man named William Marbury.(42)
国会然后转向其他业务。但午夜法官的问题不会死。这一问题仍然是重要的原因之一是因为一个叫威廉 · 马布里的人。

Marbury was one of the midnight judges who had never received his commission. He asked the Supreme Court to decide whether the government was required to give him his commission.(43)
马布里是从来没有收过他的委员会的午夜法官之一。他要求最高法院决定是否被要求政府给他他的委员会。

The chief justice of the United States, John Marshall, was a member of the Federalist Party.(44)
美国约翰 · 马歇尔,终审法院首席法官是联邦主义者党的成员。

“Jefferson and Marshall hate each other.(45)
"杰斐逊和马歇尔讨厌对方。

In fact, Marshall gives him the oath for the inauguration, and goes back to his room and says, ‘Well, a terrorist has just taken over the government.(46)
事实上,马歇尔给他宣誓就职,和可以追溯到他的房间,说,' 很好,恐怖分子只是接管了政府。

I hope we will be able to survive him.’”(47)
我希望我们将能够生存他.'"

Joseph Ellis is a historian who has written many books about early American history.(48)
约瑟夫 · 埃利斯是一个历史学家写了许多关于早期美国历史书的人。

He says John Marshall was “a towering figure” who had an entirely different view of the federal government than Jefferson.(49)
他说: 约翰 · 马歇尔是"一个高耸的图",有杰斐逊比联邦政府的完全不同的看法。

Marshall believed the Supreme Court should have the right to veto bills passed by Congress and signed by the president. In the Marbury case, he saw a chance to put this idea into law.(50)
马歇尔认为,最高法院应当有权否决国会通过的并由总统签署的法案。在马伯里案中,他看到了一个机会,这种想法付诸法律。

Marshall wrote his decision carefully. First, he said that Marbury did have a legal right to his judicial commission. Then, he said that Marbury had been denied this legal right.(51)
马歇尔仔细地写了他的决定。第一,他说马布里没有他的司法委员会法律权利。然后,他说马布里被剥夺了这一合法权利。

He said no one -- not even the president -- could take away a person's legal rights.(52)
他说: 没有人 — — 甚至没有主席 — — 能带走一个人的合法权益。

Next, Marshall noted that Marbury had taken his request to the Supreme Court under the terms of a law passed in 1789. That law gave citizens the right to ask the high court to order action by any lower court or by any government official.(53)
下一步,马歇尔指出马布里向最高法院根据 1789 年通过一项法律的规定采取了他的请求。这项法律给公民的权利来问秩序行动由任何下级法院或任何政府官员向高等法院。

Marshall explained that the Constitution carefully limits the powers of the Supreme Court. The court can hear direct requests involving diplomats or the states.(54)
马歇尔解释说宪法 》 仔细地限制了最高法院的权力。法院可以听到涉及外交官或国家的直接要求。

It cannot rule on other cases until a lower court has ruled.(55)
直到较低的法院已经裁定它不能对其他案件作出裁决。

So, Marshall said, the 1789 law allowed Marbury to take his case directly to the Supreme Court. But the Constitution did not.(56)
所以,马歇尔说,1789年法律允许马布里为他的案子直接带到最高法院。但宪法 》 没有。

The Constitution, he added, is the first law of the land. Therefore, the congressional law is unconstitutional and has no power.(57)
宪法 》,他补充说,是土地的第一法则。因此,国会法是违宪的没有权力。

Chief Justice Marshall succeeded in doing all he had hoped to do. He made clear that Marbury had a right to his judicial commission.(58)
首席大法官马歇尔在做所有他曾希望做成功了。他清楚马布里有他的司法委员会的权利。

He also saved himself from a battle with the administration. Most importantly, he claimed for the Supreme Court the power to rule on laws passed by Congress.(59)
他还救了自己从与政府当局的战役。最重要的是,他声称为最高法院的权力由国会通过的法律规则。

The case of Marbury versus Madison established that the Supreme Court — not the president or the Congress — has the final say on what the Constitution means.(60)
马布里与麦迪逊的情况成立,最高法院 — — 不是总统或国会 — — 具有最终的决定权宪法 》 是什么意思。

Jefferson did not like Marshall’s decision, but Joseph Ellis says that Jefferson was awed by how the chief justice argued his case.(61)
杰斐逊不喜欢马歇尔的决定,但约瑟夫 · 埃利斯说杰斐逊由终审法院首席法官如何辩称他的案子赞叹不绝。

“Jefferson says to his friend, 'If you ever talk to Marshall, don’t say anything.(62)
"杰斐逊对他的朋友说: ' 如果你曾经跟马歇尔,不说什么。

Because whatever you say, he will take it and he will twist it.' He calls it the 'twistifications' of John Marshall.”(63)
因为不管你说什么,他会拿它和他将会把它扭曲.'他叫它 'twistifications' 的约翰 · 马歇尔"。

Jefferson waited for the Supreme Court to use this new power to change Congress’ laws.(64)
杰斐逊在等待最高法院若要使用这项新权力更改国会的法律。

Several times during Jefferson's presidency, Federalists claimed that laws passed by the Republican Congress violated the Constitution.(65)
在杰斐逊的总统的职务,期间几次联邦主义者声称共和党国会通过的法律违反了宪法 》。

But they never asked the Supreme Court to reject those laws.(66)
但他们从来没有问最高法院拒绝那些法律。

The case of Marbury versus Madison was one of the most important decisions about how America’s government operates.(67)
马布里与麦迪逊的案例是关于美国政府如何运作最重要的决定之一。

But historians say another act during Thomas Jefferson’s presidency affected America in an even bigger way. That will be our story next week.(68)
但历史学家说,托马斯 · 杰斐逊在担任主席期间的另一种行为受美国影响更大的方式。下个星期,这将是我们的故事。

I’m Steve Ember, inviting you to join us each week for THE MAKING OF A NATION – our program of American history from VOA Learning English.(69)
我是史蒂夫 · 余烬,邀请你加入我们每周为制作的国家 — — 我们的节目从美国之音英语学习美国历史。


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