California Law That Aspires to Improve Mental Health Raises Coercion Concerns
2013-03-15 22:39:00

MARGARET WARNER:We turn to the difficulties of getting mental health care to those who need it. It's a subject getting more attention in the wake of the several recent shootings.(1)
MARGARET WARNER:我们转到难,向那些需要它的人的精神卫生保健。它是一个越来越大的关注,在之后的几个最近枪击案的主题。

It's not known if the gunman in Newtown, Conn., suffered from mental illness.(2)

But the man who shot four firefighters in Webster, New York, this week, killing two of them, who were remembered at a procession yesterday, left a disturbing note in which he pledged to burn down the neighborhood and -- quote -- "do what I like doing best, killing people."(3)
但男子枪杀四名消防队员在纽约韦伯斯特本周、 杀害两个它们,都记得在游行昨天,留下一件令人不安,他保证要烧毁邻居和 — — 报价 — —"做什么我最喜欢做,人死亡。

Politicians and commentators have used these and prior attacks to call for improved mental health screening and treatment.(4)

But one such program in California has proven hard to implement, as NewsHour correspondent Spencer Michels reports.(5)
但在加州的一个这种程序已被证明难以实施,作为采访记记者斯潘塞 · 米歇尔斯报告。

AMANDA WILCOX,Mother of murder victim: I wanted the world to know what a wonderful, incredible person she was.(6)
AMANDA WILCOX,Mother of murder victim:我想让世界都知道她是什么完美的、 令人难以置信人。

SPENCER MICHELS:For more than a decade, Nick and Amanda Wilcox have been advocating timely treatment and early intervention for the severely mentally ill, in the hopes they won't become violent.(7)
SPENCER MICHELS:超过十年,尼克和威尔科克斯阿曼达一直提倡及时治疗和早期干预严重精神病患者,他们不会成为暴力的希望。

Twelve years ago, their 19-year old-daughter, Laura Wilcox, a college sophomore, was murdered while she was working over Christmas break at a mental health clinic in Nevada County, Calif.(8)
十二年前,其 19 岁的女儿,劳拉 · 威尔科克斯,大学二年级的被谋杀,她在内华达州县,加利福尼亚州的心理健康诊所正在过圣诞节的时候

AMANDA WILCOX:At about 11:30, a client at the clinic came in and shot Laura four times at point-black range through the glass.(9)
AMANDA WILCOX:约 11:30,在诊所的客户端进来,透过玻璃点黑系列四次射击劳拉。

NICK WILCOX,father of murder victim: What we know now after the fact is he had late-onset paranoid schizophrenia.(10)
NICK WILCOX,father of murder victim:我们知道现在后这一事实是他晚发性精神分裂症偏执型。

SPENCER MICHELS:Laura's murderer, Scott Thorpe, killed two others, and then went home and took a nap. He was eventually sentenced to a locked mental hospital for life.(11)
SPENCER MICHELS:劳拉的凶手,斯科特 · 索普,打死两人,然后回家并午睡。他最终被判终身锁定精神病院。

NICK WILCOX:We felt that Laura's death was a result of a failed mental health system.(12)
NICK WILCOX:我们认为劳拉的死亡是一个失败的心理卫生系统的结果。

AMANDA WILCOX:We wanted to help prevent people from being so mentally ill that they would commit a violent act.(13)
AMANDA WILCOX:我们想要帮助防止人被精神病他们会犯下暴力行为。

SPENCER MICHELS:Helen Thomson, a former psychiatric nurse, was a California legislator at the time working on a new law to get treatment and social services like housing for reluctant and sometimes dangerous mentally ill individuals, people who were not covered by existing laws.(14)
SPENCER MICHELS:海伦汤姆森前, 精神病科的护士,当时加州立法者致力于新的法律,获得治疗和社会服务,诸如住房的不情愿和有时是危险的精神病患者个人,未涵盖的现有法律的人。

HELEN THOMSON,former California legislator: They were resistant. They didn't want to go to the clinic, or they didn't want to take their medicine or they just simply weren't willing to participate.(15)
HELEN THOMSON,former California legislator:他们是耐药。他们并没有想要去诊所,或他们不想吃药或他们只是简单地不愿意参与。

We were answering the frustrations of families who were told they didn't need help. They would call the police. The police would take them to the hospital or the jail.(16)

They'd be released and back on the street, and it became a rotating, circular activity.(17)
他们将释放和重新走上街头,和它成为旋转的、 圆形的活动。

SPENCER MICHELS:Thomson named her law for Laura Wilcox. After much contentious debate, it passed in 2002.(18)
SPENCER MICHELS:汤姆森命名的劳拉 · 威尔科克斯,她的法律。经过长时间有争议的辩论,它于 2002 年通过。

A major aim is to provide aggressive treatment for those existing laws miss, people who may not have committed a crime, yet have a history of prior hospitalization and appear to be on a downward spiral.(19)

Laura's Law provides court-ordered outpatient treatment for the seriously mentally ill for up to six months.(20)

The court must find the patient is likely to become dangerous to himself or others. The patient must have a history of not complying with treatment.(21)

The process can be requested by parents, roommates, siblings, a spouse, as well as mental health workers and the police.(22)
这一进程可以由家长、 室友、 兄弟姐妹、 配偶,以及心理卫生工作者和警察要求。

HELEN THOMSON:I think this is a perfectly good way to go. It beats doing nothing.(23)
HELEN THOMSON:我认为这是一个非常好的方法去。它比什么也不做。

SPENCER MICHELS:For patients who don't comply, the court has the power to send them to the hospital for an assessment, which is a threat designed to convince them to comply. Legislators never funded the law.(24)
SPENCER MICHELS:不能遵守的病人,法院有权把他们送到医院的评估,这是一项威胁,旨在说服他们遵守。立法者永远不会资助法律。

They said that supervisors in each of California's 58 counties had to implement and pay for it. Only one county, Nevada County, where Laura lived, has opted in.(25)
他们说的加州 58 个县的每个部门主管执行,并为此付出代价。在选择了只有一个县,内华达州县,劳拉住的地方。

It sits in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and has fewer than 100,000 residents.(26)
它坐在内华达山脉山麓,少于 100000 居民。

Nationwide, 43 states other than California have laws permitting some form of involuntary outpatient commitment.(27)
全国范围内,加州以外的 43 个国家有法律允许某种形式的非自愿门诊的承诺。

Though no one knows the diagnosis of the perpetrator of the shootings in Newtown, the killings have raised once again the issue of forcing the mentally ill into treatment.(28)

It was raised when Laura's Law was passed and remains a point of contention.(29)

EDUARDO VEGA,Mental Health Association of San Francisco: Coercive programs, fears of things like involuntary treatment, fears of having your dignity and your rights taken away, drive a lot of people away from things that would help.(30)
EDUARDO VEGA,Mental Health Association of San Francisco:强制性程序,恐惧的东西像非自愿治疗,你的尊严和你的权利带走,由于担心开车很多的事情,会帮助的人。

SPENCER MICHELS:Eduardo Vega suffered from mental illness when in his 20s.(31)
SPENCER MICHELS:爱德华多 · 维加患有精神疾病,在他 20 多岁时。

He is the executive director of San Francisco's Mental Health Association and took part in a news conference with legislators to boost support for mental health programs in California and across the country following the Newtown shootings.(32)

But Vega is opposed to the involuntary treatment programs in Laura's Law.(33)

EDUARDO VEGA:I have had some bad experiences in mental health services.(34)
EDUARDO VEGA:我有一些不好的经历在精神健康服务。

There's so many people who, precisely because they're afraid of things like coercion, things like being locked up, being labeled, they don't receive any services, they don't talk to anybody. They become more isolated.(35)

SPENCER MICHELS:Vega says that, in the wake of a tragedy, politicians often rush to pass unhelpful legislation.(36)
SPENCER MICHELS:维加说,在一场悲剧之后,政治家往往急于通过立法,无益。

EDUARDO VEGA:The Laura's Law project was driven by this example of a tragedy and spoke to people's need to want to try to do something different.(37)
EDUARDO VEGA:劳拉的法律项目是此示例的悲剧和分支赶到人民需要想要试着做不同的事情。

And in this case, it wasn't the right thing. But, yes, it can be that we rush to create a solution before really thinking about what the implications are of it.(38)

SPENCER MICHELS:The debate over involuntary treatment is familiar ground at the nonprofit Turning Point community programs in Nevada City, which provides services for the county's mentally ill, including those who fall under Laura's Law and many who don't.(39)
SPENCER MICHELS:非自愿治疗的争论是非营利的转捩点社区程序内华达市提供服务县的精神病患者,包括那些属于劳拉的法律和很多人不熟悉场地。

Some of the patients, like 36- year-old Jonathan Maurer, here for a long-acting injection for his paranoid schizophrenia, and to meet with a psychiatrist, resent being ordered to receive treatment.(40)
部分病人,像 36 岁乔纳森 · 莫伊雷尔,长效注射为他偏执型精神分裂症,并会晤一名精神病医生,在这里重发被责令接受治疗。

Today, Maurer accepts voluntary treatment for his paranoia, though he claims to have been mistreated previously.(41)

JONATHAN MAURER,patient: They gave me a catheter and strapped me down naked to the hospital bed and then sedated me. They strip you of all your rights.(42)
JONATHAN MAURER,patient:他们给了我导管和捆绑我下到医院的床上裸,,然后镇静我。他们带你你所有的权利。

I just don't see how they expect to logically assume that treating people with violence is going to cure violence.(43)

SPENCER MICHELS:But Debra Simmons, mother of a very disturbed son who gets treatment here, praises Laura's Law and involuntary treatment for essentially saving his life. She didn't want his name used.(44)
SPENCER MICHELS:但西蒙斯黛布拉,在这里,治疗非常不安儿子的母亲称赞劳拉的法律和非自愿治疗基本上挽救他的生命。她不想用他的名字。

DEBRA SIMMONS,mother of patient: He gets angry and agitated, doesn't sleep, doesn't eat, just goes through a whole cycle of events that just kind of spiral downward, until he's become a concern to the society if he's out in public.(45)
DEBRA SIMMONS,mother of patient:他获取愤怒和激动,不睡觉,不吃,只是穿过了整个周期,事件的螺旋向下,这只是种直到如果他不在公开场合,他已成为社会关注。

We had to call the police, and he struck my husband physically. We have had to lock ourselves in our room. He's torn our house apart.(46)

SPENCER MICHELS:Her son, she says, refused treatment until he was ordered under Laura's Law.(47)
SPENCER MICHELS:她的儿子,她说,拒绝治疗,直到他奉命劳拉的法律根据。

DEBRA SIMMONS:He doesn't think he's ill.(48)
DEBRA SIMMONS:他不认为他是生病了。

He doesn't recognize -- even when he's at his worst, he doesn't recognize that he has an illness and that he's missed -- he thinks everyone else in the room or in the community has a problem, not him.(49)
他并不承认 — — 即使他是最糟糕的一面,他不会承认他有病和他错过了 — — 他认为别的房间里或在社会中的每个人都有一个问题,不是他。

SPENCER MICHELS:For Simmons, Laura's law has been a game-changer.(50)
SPENCER MICHELS:西蒙斯,劳拉的法律一直是游戏的产品。

DEBRA SIMMONS:Without that, I believe he would have either been -- have injured someone else or himself, and I don't believe we would have him today.(51)
DEBRA SIMMONS:没有这个,我相信他会要么已 — — 受伤别人或自己,而且我不相信我们会有他的今天。

SPENCER MICHELS:Still, many in the mental health community, like Rusty Selix, say the law builds up false expectations.(52)
SPENCER MICHELS:仍然,在心理健康的社会,像生锈 Selix,很多人说法律建立虚假的期望。

Selix, executive director of the Mental Health Association of California, says it applies to very few people.(53)

RUSTY SELIX,executive director, Mental Health Association of California: The belief that every single person out there who has a mental illness and doesn't, you know, seek treatment for it is going to be helped by Laura's Law is just nonsense. They're not a danger to anybody.(54)
生锈 SELIX,执行董事,加利福尼亚心理健康协会: 每一个人有有精神病而没有,你知道,寻求治疗,它是会得到帮助的劳拉的法律信仰是无稽之谈。他们不会对任何人构成威胁。

The irony, of course, is it wouldn't have applied to any of these mass shooters. None of them were in that situation, or if they were, they were very good at hiding it from everyone around them.(55)

SPENCER MICHELS:Selix says Nevada County, where the law is in effect but has been used in just 54 cases, is too small to be a model for big cities with vast mental health populations.(56)
SPENCER MICHELS:Selix 说内华达县,凡法律生效,不过一直用只是 54 例,就是太小,无法与巨大心理健康人口的大城市的典范。

Besides, he argues, much of what it does is covered by other laws; it's the funding that's missing.(57)
此外,他争辩说,大部分的它的作用被覆盖其他法律 ;它是缺少资金。

RUSTY SELIX:It's a very expensive and cumbersome process.(58)
RUSTY SELIX:这是一个非常昂贵且繁琐的过程。

Maybe in a small rural county like Nevada, it's not that expensive and cumbersome, but in all the larger counties, to go through this enormous court process to get people into an outpatient program that we already have,(59)

and that we have hundreds of people on the street that are desiring of it, and we don't need a court order to get, what do we get out of it? And the feeling is that it doesn't really add that much.(60)

SPENCER MICHELS:But at the Nevada County Courthouse, presiding Judge Thomas Anderson says the law has been very effective in two-thirds of the cases, avoiding time-consuming court hearings.(61)
SPENCER MICHELS:但在内华达州的县法院,主审法官托马斯 · 安德森表示,法律已在三分之二的情况下,非常有效避免耗时的法庭聆讯。

JUDGE THOMAS ANDERSON,Nevada County Superior Court: It's saving tons of time, getting people into treatment when they need it, and the results have been very, very good.(62)
JUDGE THOMAS ANDERSON,Nevada County Superior Court:它节约时间,人民陷入治疗,当他们需要它,而是非常、 非常好的结果。

In the first couple of years, we saved a half-a-million dollars in our small county, which is a huge factor.(63)

This is a tool that's been missing forever from our mental health-providing statutes.(64)

SPENCER MICHELS:Anderson says the law tries to prevent psychotic patients from acting out and getting worse.(65)
SPENCER MICHELS:安德森说: 法律试图防止精神病患者从表演和变得更糟。

JUDGE THOMAS ANDERSON:The purpose of Laura's Law and the goal here is to catch them before that happens, engage them in treatment, hopefully voluntary, and allow them to get some stability and then build on that stability to get back into a more normal lifestyle.(66)
JUDGE THOMAS ANDERSON:劳拉的法律和我们的目标的目的是为了捕捉到它们之前发生这种情况,它们参与治疗,希望是自愿性的并让他们获得一定的稳定性,然后生成对此种稳定回到更正常的生活方式。

SPENCER MICHELS:The California legislature recently extended Laura's Law, but still hasn't funded it.(67)
SPENCER MICHELS:加州议会最近延长劳拉的法律,但仍然没有资助。

Outside Nevada County, Los Angeles has started a very small pilot program to implement Laura's Law, and several other counties have debated it.(68)

But with budgets tight, implementation by cash-strapped counties appears problematic.(69)

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