1 million Russians are HIV-positive, but only 1/3rd get treatment
2018-06-12 00:00:00


WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Pavel Lobkov is one of thetop news anchors in Russia, a celebrity of(1)
威廉布朗汉姆:帕维尔洛布科夫是俄罗斯最着名的新闻主播之一,是一位名人

sorts here.(2)
在这里排序。

But one night three years ago, he became thenews, revealing to the country that he had(3)
但三年前的一个晚上,他成了新闻,向该国透露他拥有

HIV.(4)
HIV。

PAVEL LOBKOV, Russian News Anchor (throughtranslator): Well, I went to the infectionist.(5)
PAVEL LOBKOV,俄罗斯新闻主播(通过翻译):嗯,我去了感染专家。

He had a thick file crossed with a red marker,HIV-positive.(6)
他有一个厚厚的文件与一个红色标记,艾滋病毒阳性。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: This was news because Lobkovis one of the only well-known figures in all(7)
威廉布朗汉姆:这是新闻,因为洛布科夫是唯一知名人士之一

of Russia who has gone public about his HIVstatus.(8)
俄罗斯谁已经公开他的艾滋病毒状况。

Lobkov says he wanted Russians to know thatHIV wasn't a death sentence, something that(9)
洛布科夫说,他希望俄罗斯人知道艾滋病毒不是死刑判决书,

much of the world learned decades ago.(10)
几十年前,世界的许多地方都学会了

PAVEL LOBKOV (through translator): You lookat me, you don't see that I'm exhausted.(11)
PAVEL LOBKOV(通过翻译):你看着我,你看不到我已经筋疲力尽。

You don't see spots on my cheeks.(12)
你的脸颊上没有看到斑点。

You couldn't distinguish that I'm HIV-positive,if I don't tell about it.(13)
如果我不告诉它,你无法区分我是艾滋病毒阳性的。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Public health officialssay it's hard to believe that such a wealthy,(14)
威廉布朗汉姆:公共卫生官员说,很难相信这样一个富有,

educated nation still treats HIV/AIDS withso much stigma and denial.(15)
受过教育的国家仍然对待艾滋病毒/艾滋病带来如此多的耻辱和否定。

PAVEL LOBKOV (through translator): It's becausewe are still Soviet.(16)
PAVEL LOBKOV(通过翻译):这是因为我们仍然是苏联。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: What does it mean to beSoviet?(17)
威廉布朗汉姆:作为苏维埃意味着什么?

PAVEL LOBKOV (through translator): Sovietmeans to be very shy, not to share problems,(18)
PAVEL LOBKOV(通过翻译):苏联意味着非常害羞,不要分担问题,

keep everything with himself.(19)
保持一切与自己。

If you cry, do it alone, please.(20)
如果你哭了,请单独做。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Critics say these attitudesare partly why Russia is one of the few places(21)
威廉布朗汉姆:批评者说这些态度是为什么俄罗斯是为数不多的地方之一

on Earth where HIV's spread continues to increaseat a rate of 10 percent every year, higher(22)
在地球上,艾滋病病毒传播以每年10%的速度继续增加

than in the hardest-hit countries in sub-SaharanAfrica.(23)
而不是撒哈拉以南非洲受灾最严重的国家。

Over the last decade, the science has shownthat there are certain things you can do that(24)
在过去的十年中,科学已经表明,你可以做某些事情

will definitely slow the spread of HIV: Yougive clean needles to injection drug users.(25)
肯定会减缓艾滋病的传播:你给注射吸毒者提供干净的针头。

You aggressively test and treat people withHIV, so that they don't spread the virus to(26)
你积极地测试和治疗艾滋病病毒感染者,以免他们传播病毒

others.(27)
其他。

And you target these interventions at peoplewho are at risk.(28)
你将这些干预措施定位于处于危险之中的人。

These things have been shown to work.(29)
这些东西已被证明是有效的。

And yet, oftentimes, those tools are not beingused here in Russia.(30)
然而,通常这些工具在俄罗斯并没有被使用。

This young woman, who we will just call Katia,gives a glimpse of how outdated HIV care can(31)
这位年轻女性,我们只要称卡蒂亚,就会看到过时的艾滋病护理可以如何

be in Russia.(32)
在俄罗斯。

She asked that we not show her face.(33)
她问我们不露脸。

A few years ago, after a breakup, she startedfeeling sick.(34)
几年前,分手后,她开始感到不适。

KATIA, HIV-Positive (through translator):He liked alcohol, and loved to sleep around.(35)
KATIA,艾滋病病毒感染者(通过翻译):他喜欢酒精,喜欢睡觉。

Then, when we split up, I started to get sick.(36)
然后,当我们分手时,我开始生病。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Her doctors wouldn't testher for HIV.(37)
威廉布朗汉姆:她的医生不会检测她的艾滋病毒。

The idea that a drug-free heterosexual womancould contract the virus seemed unlikely,(38)
一个无毒的异性恋女性可能感染病毒的想法似乎不太可能,

despite the fact that heterosexual sex isnow becoming the top driver of HIV transmission(39)
尽管异性恋现在正成为艾滋病毒传播的主要驱动力

in Russia.(40)
在俄国。

But Katia insisted.(41)
但卡蒂亚坚持说。

Then, when her test came back positive, shewas told she didn't need to start antiretroviral(42)
然后,当她的测试恢复正面时,她被告知她不需要开始抗逆转录病毒治疗

drugs, the standard care for HIV.(43)
毒品,艾滋病毒的标准照顾。

KATIA (through translator): They told me,pills are not necessary.(44)
KATIA(通过翻译):他们告诉我,药片没有必要。

There's no need to start anything.(45)
没有必要开始任何事情。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: According to Jon Cohen,who's been covering HIV/AIDS for more than(46)
威廉布朗汉姆:根据乔恩科恩,谁已经覆盖超过艾滋病毒/艾滋病

25 years for "Science" magazine, the adviceKatia received runs counter to every tenet(47)
“科学”杂志已有25年的历史,Katia收到的建议与每个原则都背道而驰

of modern HIV care.(48)
现代艾滋病关怀。

Cohen is our reporting partner on this series.(49)
科恩是本系列的报告合作伙伴。

JON COHEN, "Science": Back in the bad olddays, when there weren't enough drugs for(50)
JON COHEN,“科学”:回到过去糟糕的时代,当时没有足够的药物

everyone, the recommendations were that youwait to start treatment, until your immune(51)
每个人,建议是你等待开始治疗,直到你的免疫力

system declined.(52)
系统下降。

But the evidence has become overwhelminglyclear: Start everyone on treatment immediately.(53)
但证据已经非常明确:立即开始每个人接受治疗。

In most of the world right now, anyone whoreceives an HIV diagnosis is offered medication(54)
现在在世界大部分地区,任何接受艾滋病毒诊断的人都会得到药物治疗

right away.(55)
马上。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Katia then told her doctorsthat she and her new husband, who's in the(56)
威廉布朗汉姆:卡蒂亚然后告诉她的医生,她和她的新丈夫,谁在

military, were trying to have a baby, andshe'd read online that she should definitely(57)
军方,正在试着生一个孩子,她在网上读到她应该肯定

take antiretrovirals to prevent transmittingthe virus to her husband and her baby.(58)
采取抗逆转录病毒药物,以防止病毒传播给她的丈夫和她的孩子。

KATIA (through translator): The doctor toldme that the virus is small.(59)
KATIA(通过翻译):医生告诉我病毒很小。

You won't likely infect him.(60)
你不可能感染他。

And I said, what?(61)
我说,什么?

How can that be?(62)
怎么可能?

I sat and argued with her because I had alreadyresearched online.(63)
我坐下来和她争论,因为我已经在网上进行过研究。

JON COHEN: It's startling to me that therewas a woman in Russia in 2017 who's trying(64)
JON COHEN:2017年在俄罗斯有一位女士在尝试,这对我来说很让人吃惊

to get pregnant and goes to the doctor andsays, hey, I need antiretrovirals, and the(65)
怀孕并去看医生说,嘿,我需要抗逆转录病毒药物,而且

doctor says, well, you know, your immune system'sdoing well, your viral load isn't that high,(66)
医生说,好吧,你知道,你的免疫系统做得很好,你的病毒载量不是那么高,

you don't really need it.(67)
你并不需要它。

She knew better.(68)
她知道得更好。

She had been reading on the Internet.(69)
她一直在网上阅读。

And she said, no.(70)
她说,不。

What it says is that there's something broken.(71)
它说的是有些东西坏了。

VADIM POKROVSKY, Federal AIDS Center: It seemsthat, at the present moment, there are no(72)
VADIM POKROVSKY,联邦艾滋病中心:看来,目前还没有

real attempts to overcome the epidemic.(73)
真正试图克服这种流行病。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Vadim Pokrovsky is the longtimehead of Russia's Federal AIDS Center.(74)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:Vadim Pokrovsky是俄罗斯联邦艾滋病中心的长期负责人。

And, yes, such a senior official has a bleakview of his country's efforts.(75)
而且,是的,这样一位高级官员对他的国家的努力持悲观态度。

He says Russian society is shaped in largepart by the hugely influential Russian Orthodox(76)
他说俄罗斯社会在很大程度上受到了巨大影响的俄罗斯东正教的影响

Church, which argues against key HIV prevention,like comprehensive sex education, condoms(77)
教会反对关键的艾滋病预防,如全面的性教育,安全套

and needle exchange.(78)
和换针。

VADIM POKROVSKY: In many situations, the argumentsfrom science are not so effective as arguments(79)
VADIM POKROVSKY:在许多情况下,来自科学的论点不如论证那么有效

from the church.(80)
来自教堂。

But we think that it's better first to savelife, and then to save soul.(81)
但我们认为首先要拯救生命,然后才能拯救灵魂。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Russia's national budgetcovers the treatment of only 300,000 HIV-positive(82)
威廉布朗汉姆:俄罗斯的国家预算仅涵盖30万艾滋病毒阳性的治疗

Russians, nowhere near the estimated one millionwho are infected and need care.(83)
俄罗斯人,估计有一百万人感染并需要护理。

For those who do get on treatment, it's notalways easy to find a ready, steady supply(84)
对于那些接受治疗的人来说,找到一个准备好的,稳定的供应并不容易

of medicine.(85)
的药物。

Alexander Chebin is something of an undergroundpharmacist.(86)
亚历山大·切宾是地下药剂师。

So, this is a traveling pharmacy?(87)
那么,这是一家旅行药店?

ALEXANDER CHEBIN, Runs Drug-Sharing Network(through translator): Yes.(88)
ALEXANDER CHEBIN,经营药物分享网络(通过翻译):是的。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: In the city of Yekaterinburg,he runs an informal, free, drug-sharing network(89)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:在叶卡捷琳堡市,他经营一个非正式的,免费的药物分享网络

for HIV-positive Russians in need.(90)
为有需要的HIV阳性俄罗斯人提供服务。

In this box is a mix of various HIV medications,collected from people who don't need them(91)
在这个盒子里是从不需要它们的人那里收集的各种HIV药物的混合物

anymore, either because they have changedmeds or because they died.(92)
不管是因为他们改变了药物还是因为他们死了。

So this is AZT?(93)
那么这是AZT?

ALEXANDER CHEBIN: AZT.(94)
亚历山大·谢班:AZT。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Chebin says, because nomoney changes hands, this is legal, but he(95)
威廉布朗汉姆:切宾说,因为没有钱易手,这是合法的,但他

still plays it safe, hiding medications indifferent places, like here in his couch.(96)
仍然在安全地玩耍,在不同的地方隐藏药物,就像在他的沙发上一样。

Using a network of couriers, Chebin packsup and sends medicine anywhere in the country(97)
Chebin使用一个快递员网络打包并在该国任何地方送药

to patients who need them, all for free.(98)
给需要他们的病人,全部免费。

This woman 1,300 hundred miles away in St.Petersburg is part of that network.(99)
这个位于圣彼得堡一百三十英里外的女人是该网络的一部分。

Russia has had repeated problems with so-calledstock-outs, where different regions run short(100)
俄罗斯在所谓缺货的问题上一再出现问题,这些地区缺货

on these crucial HIV medications.(101)
在这些关键的艾滋病毒药物。

This group is here to help fill the gap.(102)
这个团队在这里帮助填补空白。

Keeping people on steady HIV medication iscrucial, because people on treatment are much(103)
保持人们稳定的艾滋病药物治疗至关重要,因为治疗的人很多

less likely to transmit the virus to others.(104)
不太可能将病毒传播给其他人。

But the fact that only a third of HIV-positiveRussians are on treatment contributes to the(105)
但只有三分之一的艾滋病毒呈阳性的俄罗斯人正在接受治疗,这一事实有助于这一事实

100,000 new infections that occur here everyyear.(106)
每年发生10万次新感染。

President Putin's government has been criticizedfor not forcefully addressing the crisis,(107)
普京总统的政府因为没有强有力地应对危机而受到批评,

but, in 2016, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedevsigned Russia's strategic plan against HIV,(108)
但是,2016年,梅德韦杰夫总理签署了俄罗斯抗艾滋病战略计划,

which hopes to get many more people testedand treated in coming years.(109)
希望能在未来几年内让更多的人受到测试和治疗。

TEREZA KASAEVA, Russian Ministry of Health:We have a big number of cases, but the situation(110)
俄罗斯卫生部TEREZA KASAEVA:我们有大量的案件,但情况

is quite different in different regions.(111)
在不同的地区差异很大。

There is no epidemics in our country.(112)
我国没有流行病。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: We met with officials fromthe Russian Ministry of Health.(113)
威廉布朗汉姆:我们会见了俄罗斯卫生部的官员。

They reject the term epidemic and claim theyare aggressively trying to get everyone who's(114)
他们拒绝流行病这一术语,并声称他们正在积极努力争取所有人

infected onto medication.(115)
感染药物。

They say millions more Russians are beingtested for HIV, and their treatment numbers(116)
他们说,还有数百万俄罗斯人正在接受艾滋病毒检测,以及他们的治疗数量

are growing.(117)
正在增长。

TEREZA KASAEVA: We didn't say that we haveno problem with HIV.(118)
特雷莎卡萨瓦娃:我们没有说我们没有艾滋病问题。

We know that, in fact, we have problem.(119)
我们知道,事实上,我们有问题。

But we are trying to solve it.(120)
但我们正在努力解决它。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: But this couple, which ispart of that effort in St. Petersburg, says(121)
威廉布朗汉姆:但这对夫妇,这是圣彼得堡的努力的一部分,说

it's too little, too late.(122)
它太少,太晚了。

ANDREY SKVORTSOV, Patients In Control (throughtranslator): They give it more money.(123)
ANDREY SKVORTSOV,患者控制权(通过翻译):他们给了它更多的钱。

They give it more prevention programs.(124)
他们给它更多的预防方案。

They say, we have a strategy.(125)
他们说,我们有一个策略。

But the price for that is 20 years of death.(126)
但是价格是20年的死亡。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Andrey Skvortsov works foran HIV patient advocacy group.(127)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:Andrey Skvortsov为艾滋病患者倡导组织工作。

His wife, Dr. Tatiana Vinogradova, is oneof the nation's top HIV doctors.(128)
他的妻子Tatiana Vinogradova博士是美国顶尖的艾滋病医生之一。

She helps run St. Petersburg's AIDS Center,one of the longest-running centers in Russia.(129)
她帮助管理圣彼得堡艾滋病中心,这是俄罗斯历史最悠久的中心之一。

And St. Petersburg has made some progresslocally against HIV using proven prevention(130)
使用经过验证的预防措施,圣彼得堡已经在本地取得了一些进展

and treatment strategies.(131)
和治疗策略。

But there's more to their story.(132)
但他们的故事还有更多。

Skvortsov is HIV-positive and on treatment,and Vinogradova is HIV-negative.(133)
Skvortsov是艾滋病毒呈阳性并接受治疗,Vinogradova是艾滋病毒阴性。

In this public ad campaign, they tried tochip away at HIV stigma.(134)
在这次公益广告活动中,他们试图抹去艾滋病毒污名。

This poster says: "HIV isn't a barrier tostarting a family.(135)
这张海报说:“艾滋病不是创建家庭的障碍。

With HIV, it's possible to live a long life."(136)
有了艾滋病毒,有可能过上长寿。“

The idea is, if you know you're infected,like this young man who just was diagnosed,(137)
这个想法是,如果你知道你感染了病毒,就像刚刚被诊断出来的这个年轻人一样,

regular treatment can not only save your life,but can prevent your partner from becoming(138)
定期治疗不仅可以挽救你的生命,但可以防止你的伴侣成为

infected as well.(139)
也受到感染。

But Vinogradova says the prejudice is stillstrong, even in the medical community.(140)
但是Vinogradova说偏见仍然很强烈,即使在医学界也是如此。

DR.(141)
DR。

TATIANA VINOGRADOVA, St. Petersburg AIDS Center:They are still afraid of HIV patients.(142)
TATIANA VINOGRADOVA,圣彼得堡艾滋病中心:他们仍然害怕艾滋病患者。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Doctors are afraid today?(143)
威廉布朗汉姆:医生今天很害怕?

DR.(144)
DR。

TATIANA VINOGRADOVA: Surgeons.(145)
TATIANA VINOGRADOVA:外科医生。

Dentists.(146)
牙医。

Nurses.(147)
护士。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: In this day and age?(148)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:在这个时代?

DR.(149)
DR。

TATIANA VINOGRADOVA: In this, in this city,in this progressive Russian city.(150)
TATIANA VINOGRADOVA:在这个城市里,在这个进步的俄罗斯城市。

JON COHEN: So, there's a lot of frustrationhere as well from people who are at the front.(151)
JON COHEN:所以,在这里也有很多人因为前线而感到沮丧。

These people that we're meeting with, they'rereally smart.(152)
我们遇到的这些人,他们真的很聪明。

This is not a place for people that are livingin the Dark Ages.(153)
这不适合居住在黑暗时代的人。

You know?(154)
你懂?

Look around.(155)
环视四周。

It's -- it is Europe.(156)
这是 - 它是欧洲。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So, what is it?(157)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:那是什么?

If the tools are at hand and everyone knowshow to really address it, why is it not happening?(158)
如果工具即将出现,每个人都知道如何真正解决它,那么为什么它不会发生?

JON COHEN: You know, William, they're tellingus that it's leadership.(159)
JON COHEN:你知道,威廉,他们告诉我们它是领导力。

We have heard it again and again, that theirleadership just isn't embracing it aggressively.(160)
我们一次又一次地听到,他们的领导层并不积极拥护它。

And they have a lot of other problems.(161)
他们还有很多其他问题。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: But Dr. Vinogradova is darklyoptimistic.(162)
威廉布朗汉姆:但博士Vinogradova是黑暗乐观。

She says this growing epidemic will eventuallymake Russia pay attention.(163)
她表示,疫情日益蔓延将最终使俄罗斯受到关注。

DR.(164)
DR。

TATIANA VINOGRADOVA: Actually, it's Russianmentality.(165)
TATIANA VINOGRADOVA:实际上,这是俄罗斯的心态。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: What, that it has to getworse?(166)
威廉布朗汉姆:什么,它变得更糟?

DR.(167)
DR。

TATIANA VINOGRADOVA: Something should happen.(168)
TATIANA VINOGRADOVA:应该发生一些事情。

Something very bad should happen.(169)
应该发生一些非常糟糕的事情。

After that, everybody will stand up and justgo and do something.(170)
之后,每个人都会站起来,然后去做点什么。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: For now, though, peoplelike Katia keep up a quieter fight, one foot(171)
威廉布朗汉姆:不过,现在,像卡蒂亚这样的人保持着一只脚的安静战斗

in front of the other, even as her country'sepidemic moves in the wrong direction.(172)
在另一方面,即使她的国家的流行病朝着错误的方向发展。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm William Branghamin Yekaterinburg, Russia.(173)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,我是俄罗斯叶卡捷琳堡的William Brangham。


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