The U.S. needs more home care workers. Is this the solution?
2018-08-09 00:00:00


WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Many of us say we want tostay at home as we grow into old age.(1)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:我们中的许多人都说,随着年龄的增长,我们希望待在家里。

But as economics correspondent Paul Solmanrecently reported, the country is facing a(2)
但正如经济记者保罗·索尔曼最近报道的那样,该国正面临着一个问题

shortage of home care workers, the very peoplewho can make staying at home possible.(3)
家庭护理工作者短缺,可以让住在家里的人很多。

Tonight, Paul looks at efforts to addressthat shortage.(4)
今晚,保罗着眼于解决这一短缺的努力。

It's part of our weekly series, Making Sense.(5)
这是我们每周系列节目“有意义”的一部分。

PAUL SOLMAN: America's home care shortageis critical and growing.(6)
PAUL SOLMAN:美国的家庭护理短缺至关重要且不断增长。

WOMAN: All right, Tom, come sit down for breakfast.(7)
女人:好吧,汤姆,来坐下吃早餐。

PAUL SOLMAN: Right now, 90 percent are women,who help older adults and people with disabilities(8)
保罗·索尔曼:现在,90%的女性是帮助老年人和残疾人的女性

get through the daily tasks of living at home.(9)
完成住在家里的日常工作。

The key drivers of the shortage, accordingto gerontologist Clare Luz:(10)
根据老年学家克莱尔·鲁兹的说法,这种短缺的主要驱动因素是:

CLARE LUZ, Gerontologist: Low wages.(11)
CLARE LUZ,老年学家:低工资。

PAUL SOLMAN: Right.(12)
PAUL SOLMAN:对。

CLARE LUZ: Virtually no benefits, lack ofguaranteed hours and lack of respect.(13)
CLARE LUZ:实际上没有任何好处,缺乏保证的时间和缺乏尊重。

Those are the big-ticket items.(14)
这些都是大件物品。

PAUL SOLMAN: The pay?(15)
保罗·索曼:薪水?

A national average of $10.49 an hour.(16)
全国平均每小时10.49美元。

And that's not nearly enough to make up theshortage, says MIT management professor Paul(17)
麻省理工学院管理学教授保罗说,这还不足以弥补短缺

Osterman.(18)
奥斯特曼。

PAUL OSTERMAN, MIT Sloan School of Management:We have to find ways to make these jobs for(19)
麻省理工学院斯隆管理学院的PAUL OSTERMAN:我们必须找到办法来完成这些工作

these home aides better jobs, so more peopleare willing to do the work.(20)
这些家庭帮助更好的工作,所以更多的人愿意做这项工作。

PAUL SOLMAN: On the demand side, the reasonis obvious and pressing: The number of elderly(21)
保罗·索尔曼:在需求方面,原因显而易见且紧迫:老年人数量

and disabled in need of assistance is expectedto double in the next 25 years.(22)
预计在未来25年内,需要援助的残疾人数将增加一倍。

PAUL OSTERMAN: It's going to put tremendouspressure on unpaid family members to step(23)
PAUL OSTERMAN:这将给无偿的家庭成员带来巨大的压力

in, but they're not going to be there in thenumbers that we need.(24)
在,但他们不会在我们需要的数字。

PAUL SOLMAN: There aren't enough Hellen (ph)Kwants, that is.(25)
PAUL SOLMAN:没有足够的Hellen(ph)Kwants,就是这样。

She's been caring for the elderly since shearrived from Colombia at age 22.(26)
自从她22岁时从哥伦比亚来到这里以来,她一直在照顾老人。

You're now how old?(27)
你现在多大了?

HELLEN KWANT, Home Care Worker: Eighty-seven.(28)
HELLEN KWANT,家庭护理员:八十七岁。

PAUL SOLMAN: And you're still doing it?(29)
保罗·索尔曼:你还在做吗?

How old is the person you're taking care of?(30)
你要照顾的人多大了?

HELLEN KWANT: Eighty-seven.(31)
HELLEN KWANT:八十七岁。

(LAUGHTER)
PAUL SOLMAN: Hellen's daughter, Martha,` isalso a home care worker.(32)
保罗·索曼:海伦的女儿玛莎,也是家庭护理工作者。

MARTHA KWANT, Home Care Worker: My mom raisedus to care for our elderly neighbors, so since(33)
MARTHA KWANT,家庭护理员:我的妈妈抚养我们照顾我们的老年邻居,所以从那以后

we were knee-high to boll weevils, we weretaking food and helping do this.(34)
我们是棉铃象鼻虫的膝盖,我们正在吃食物并帮助做到这一点。

HELLEN KWANT: Yes, we adopted like a grandma.(35)
HELLEN KWANT:是的,我们像奶奶一样收养。

PAUL SOLMAN: But Martha wonders if the restof her fellow Americans are equipped to take(36)
保罗·索尔曼:但玛莎想知道她的其他美国同胞是否有能力接受

in aging relatives.(37)
在老年亲属。

MARTHA KWANT: As a society, we're not so goodabout having the patience, as other cultures(38)
MARTHA KWANT:作为一个社会,我们不像其他文化那样有耐心

do, to have family move in, or to have thatperson move in with family and soften the(39)
做,让家人搬进来,或让那个人和家人一起搬进来,软化家人

approach to that ledge and the fall.(40)
接近那个窗台和秋天。

That's not something most Americans are preparedto do.(41)
这不是大多数美国人准备做的事情。

PAUL SOLMAN: So, what to do?(42)
PAUL SOLMAN:那么,该怎么办?

In his book "Who Will Care For Us?"(43)
在他的书“谁会关心我们?”

Osterman argues home care workers should begiven more responsibilities, like managing(44)
奥斯特曼认为应该给予家庭护理工作者更多的责任,比如管理

chronic conditions, and especially more training.(45)
慢性病,特别是更多的训练。

PAUL OSTERMAN: If they could do more theywould be more productive.(46)
PAUL OSTERMAN:如果他们能做得更多,他们会更有成效。

That would justify better compensation forthem, which would mean that more people would(47)
这样可以为他们提供更好的补偿,这意味着会有更多的人愿意

enter into the market, and we will be ableto avoid the shortages we will inevitably(48)
进入市场,我们将不可避免地避免短缺

face as the baby boom ages.(49)
面对婴儿潮的岁月。

WOMAN: I'm tearing that off.(50)
女人:我正在撕掉它。

I'm not touching my hand.(51)
我不碰我的手。

PAUL SOLMAN: At a recent session in GrandLedge, Michigan, called Building Training,(52)
PAUL SOLMAN:最近在密歇根州Grand Ledge举行的一次会议上称为建筑培训,

Building Quality, or BTBQ, experienced homecare workers were learning how to train new(53)
建筑质量,或BTBQ,经验丰富的家庭护理工作者正在学习如何培养新的

employees.(54)
雇员。

BTBQ curriculum provides baseline trainingfor home care workers.(55)
BTBQ课程为家庭护理工作者提供基线培训。

The goal is to attract and retain more people,because last year the industry had a median(56)
目标是吸引和留住更多人,因为去年该行业的中位数

turnover rate of 67 percent.(57)
周转率为67%。

ALYSSA LAWRENCE, Home Care Coordinator: We'reconstantly looking for other ways to retain(58)
ALYSSA LAWRENCE,家庭护理协调员:我们一直在寻找其他保留方式

our staff.(59)
我们的员工。

PAUL SOLMAN: Participant Alyssa Lawrence thinksmore training could lead to higher job satisfaction(60)
PAUL SOLMAN:参与者Alyssa Lawrence认为更多的培训可以提高工作满意度

among her employees.(61)
在她的员工中间。

ALYSSA LAWRENCE: We're trying to break thatstigma of you're just a home health aide,(62)
ALYSSA LAWRENCE:我们试图打破你只是家庭健康助手的耻辱,

so this way we're looking at trying to bettereducate them, better train them and hopefully(63)
所以我们这样做是为了更好地教育他们,更好地训练他们,希望如此

retain our staff a lot better.(64)
保持我们的员工更好。

PAUL SOLMAN: But here's the problem: Moretraining in no way guarantees higher pay.(65)
保罗·索尔曼:但问题在于:更多的培训并不能保证更高的薪酬。

WENDY MARTIN, Runs Home Care Business: I wasgobsmacked on how little they pay for this.(66)
WENDY MARTIN,运营家庭护理业务:我对他们为此付出的代价感到惊讶。

PAUL SOLMAN: After Wendy Martin (ph) losther automotive job, she decided to run a home(67)
保罗·索尔曼:在温迪·马丁(Phndy)失去汽车工作后,她决定经营一家

care agency with her mom.(68)
护理机构和她妈妈一起

If your work force is better qualified becausethey have gotten the training that you're(69)
如果你的员工有更好的资格,因为他们已经接受了你的培训

learning how to give, are they going to earnmore money?(70)
学习如何给予,他们会赚更多的钱吗?

WENDY MARTIN: Probably not.(71)
温迪马丁:可能不是。

PAUL SOLMAN: The reason for that is, mostlong-term home care is paid for through Medicaid.(72)
PAUL SOLMAN:原因是,大多数长期家庭护理都是通过Medicaid支付的。

PAUL OSTERMAN: The financing system is a tremendouschallenge.(73)
PAUL OSTERMAN:融资体系是一个巨大的挑战。

Medicaid has to compete with education andpublic safety for resources.(74)
医疗补助必须与教育和公共安全竞争资源。

Medicaid today caps what you can do for theseaides in terms of compensation.(75)
医疗补助今天为您提供补偿方面的帮助。

PAUL SOLMAN: But, he says, if home care workerswere better-trained and higher-paid, Medicaid(76)
保罗·索尔曼:但是,他说,如果家庭护理工作者受过更好的培训并且收入更高,医疗补助计划

and insurance companies would actually benefiteconomically, because patients would avoid(77)
而且保险公司实际上会从经济上受益,因为患者会避免

more expensive medical care.(78)
更昂贵的医疗保健。

PAUL OSTERMAN: Fewer emergency room visits,fewer readmissions into hospitals.(79)
PAUL OSTERMAN:急诊室就诊次数减少,入院次数减少。

Secondly, they will save money because theycould shift some work from higher paid folks,(80)
其次,他们会省钱,因为他们可以从高收入的人那里转移一些工作,

largely nurses, to these aides.(81)
这些助手主要是护士。

And they will save money because they willavoid unneeded nursing home entrances.(82)
而且他们会省钱,因为他们会避免不必要的疗养院入口。

PAUL SOLMAN: Clare Luz says the Michigan trainingprogram has already provided evidence of cost-saving.(83)
PAUL SOLMAN:Clare Luz说密歇根州的培训计划已经提供了节约成本的证据。

CLARE LUZ: We were able to demonstrate empiricallyan association between this comprehensive(84)
CLARE LUZ:我们能够凭经验证明这种全面的关联

training program and expensive client outcomes,like falls and emergency room visits.(85)
培训计划和昂贵的客户结果,如跌倒和急诊室访问。

Just from an economic standpoint, a businessstandpoint, it's foolish not to be looking(86)
从经济的角度来看,从商业的角度来看,不看的是愚蠢的

at this work force.(87)
在这个工作队伍。

HENRIETTA IVEY, Home Care Worker: Your hairis very, very curly and pretty.(88)
HENRIETTA IVEY,家庭护理员:你的头发非常,非常卷曲和漂亮。

PAUL SOLMAN: Henrietta Ivey has many yearsof experience, but she says when workers like(89)
PAUL SOLMAN:Henrietta Ivey有多年的经验,但她说当工人喜欢的时候

her care for clients dependent on governmentreimbursements in her native Detroit, the(90)
她依赖政府在她的家乡底特律报销的客户照顾她

pay is still a measly $9.50 an hour.(91)
薪水仍然是每小时9.50美元。

HENRIETTA IVEY: They tell you, get skilled,get trained.(92)
HENRIETTA IVEY:他们告诉你,熟练,接受训练。

And we do get skilled and get trained, butthat money has not changed.(93)
我们确实熟练并接受过培训,但这笔钱没有改变。

It hasn't.(94)
它没有。

PAUL SOLMAN: After talking to her for a while,I wondered, could Ivey cater to private clients(95)
保罗·索尔曼:在和她谈了一会儿之后,我想知道,艾维可以迎合私人客户

who could afford to pay more out-of-pocketto a loving, seasoned pro like her?(96)
谁有能力为像她这样有爱心,经验丰富的职业选手付出更多的钱?

Maybe it's that there is a big entrepreneurialopportunity.(97)
也许这是一个巨大的创业机会。

HENRIETTA IVEY: You have got a good pointthere, but say, for example, me and a group(98)
HENRIETTA IVEY:你有一个很好的观点,但是,例如,我和一群人说

of home care workers say, you know what, let'sjust start a home care agency.(99)
家庭护理人员说,你知道吗,让我们开始一个家庭护理机构。

PAUL SOLMAN: Right.(100)
PAUL SOLMAN:对。

HENRIETTA IVEY: If we don't have money saved,which we don't, because we don't make any(101)
HENRIETTA IVEY:如果我们没有省钱,我们没有,因为我们没有做任何

money to save anything to think on that level,those are our barriers.(102)
在这个层面上拯救任何东西的钱,这些都是我们的障碍。

When you don't have that money for your basicneeds, those types of ideas are just ideas(103)
当你没有足够的钱来满足你的基本需求时,那些类型的想法只是想法

for us.(104)
为了我们。

We work, we sweat!(105)
我们工作,我们汗流!背!

PAUL SOLMAN: So Ivey has become an activistwith the Service Employees International Union(106)
PAUL SOLMAN:Ivey已成为服务员工国际联盟的活动家

to press for higher wages.(107)
要求更高的工资。

HENRIETTA IVEY: Somewhere, somebody is goingto snap and say, you know what?(108)
HENRIETTA IVEY:在某个地方,有人会突然说,你知道吗?

We see the problem here now.(109)
我们现在在这里看到问题。

It ain't that people don't want to work.(110)
并不是人们不想工作。

It's not that people are not smart enough.(111)
这并不是说人们不够聪明。

We're not paying them enough.(112)
我们没有给他们足够的报酬。

That's what I like to hear, that sizzle.(113)
这就是我喜欢听到的,那种嘶嘶声。

PAUL SOLMAN: And, says Paul Osterman, if wewant there to be more home care workers like(114)
保罗·索尔曼:而保罗·奥斯特曼说,如果我们希望有更多的家庭护理工作者喜欢

Henrietta Ivey around when we need their services,we will have to advocate for them too.(115)
Henrietta Ivey在我们需要他们的服务时,我们也必须为他们提倡。

PAUL OSTERMAN: We're going to need help, andwe're going to wonder where it is and why(116)
PAUL OSTERMAN:我们需要帮助,我们会想知道它在哪里以及为什么

it's not forthcoming.(117)
它不会即将到来。

And then we will complain.(118)
然后我们会抱怨。

And there will hopefully be a politician whowill see it in his or her interest to make(119)
并且希望成为一名政治家,他会为了自己的兴趣而努力

this their issue.(120)
他们的问题。

PAUL SOLMAN: For the "PBS NewsHour," thisis economics correspondent Paul Solman reporting(121)
保罗·索尔曼:对于“PBS NewsHour”,这是经济记者Paul Solman的报道

from Michigan.(122)
来自密歇根州

HENRIETTA IVEY: You're welcome.(123)
HENRIETTA IVEY:不客气。


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