Inside Facebook's race to separate news from junk
2018-05-16 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Facebook is under pressureto crack down on false news, fake accounts(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:Fa​​cebook正面临着打击虚假消息和虚假账户的压力

and inflammatory content that can be manipulatedto influence the public.(2)
和可以操纵以影响公众的炎症成分。

This week, the social media giant announcedthat it deleted 865 million posts in the first(3)
本周,这家社交媒体巨头宣布,它首先删除了8.65亿个帖子

three months of this year.(4)
今年三个月。

Most of it was spam.(5)
大部分是垃圾邮件。

The company also quickly disabled more thana half-a-billion fake accounts.(6)
该公司还迅速禁用了超过5亿的假帐户。

But that isn't everything.(7)
但那不是一切。

Tonight, we take a look at how Facebook triesto tackle the content it won't delete.(8)
今晚,我们来看看Facebook如何处理它不会删除的内容。

Miles O'Brien has been examining the problemof junk news and Facebook.(9)
Miles O'Brien一直在研究垃圾新闻和Facebook的问题。

For the record, the "NewsHour" has partneredwith Facebook on projects in the past.(10)
据记载,“NewsHour”过去曾与Facebook合作过项目。

This is the last report in a special series.(11)
这是一个特殊系列中的最后一个报告。

It's part of our weekly look at the LeadingEdge of science and technology.(12)
这是我们每周看待科学和技术领先优势的一部分。

MILES O'BRIEN: Inside Facebook headquartersin Silicon Valley, they are trying rethink(13)
MILES O'BRIEN:硅谷Facebook总部内部,他们正在尝试重新思考

the column of babble that the News Feed hasbecome.(14)
新闻馈送已成为喋喋不休的一列。

MAN: So, I don't think this is actually necessarilyall that bad of a design, even though it doesn't(15)
MAN:所以,我认为这不一定就是设计的那么糟糕,尽管它没有

look that great.(16)
看起来很棒。

MILES O'BRIEN: Here, they are trying to figureout how rate the quality of the news we like(17)
米尔斯奥布莱恩:在这里,他们正试图弄清楚我们喜欢的新闻的质量有多高

and share, more clearly identify the source,offer users some context, and make sure the(18)
并分享,更清楚地识别来源,为用户提供一些背景信息,并确保

cream rises to the top of the feed, whilethe junk sits at the bottom.(19)
奶油上升到饲料的顶部,而垃圾坐在底部。

TESSA LYONS, Product Manager, Facebook: Wedon't want a false story to get distribution,(20)
Facebook产品经理TESSA LYONS:我们不想要一个虚假的故事来获得发行,

so we demote it.(21)
所以我们降级它。

MILES O'BRIEN: Tessa Lyons is product managerof News Feed integrity.(22)
MILES O'BRIEN:Tessa Lyons是新闻馈送完整性的产品经理。

She works with two competing goals in mind,keep the platform free and open to a broad(23)
她着眼于两个相互竞争的目标,保持平台的自由和开放

spectrum of ideas and opinions and reducethe spread of misinformation.(24)
思想和观点的范围,并减少错误信息的传播。

Why not just delete it?(25)
为什么不把它删除?

TESSA LYONS: Well, it's an interesting question.(26)
TESSA LYONS:嗯,这是一个有趣的问题。

And I think, look there's real tension here.(27)
我认为,看看这里真正的紧张。

We believe that we're not arbiters of truthand the people don't want us to be arbiters(28)
我们相信我们不是真理的仲裁者,人们不希望我们成为仲裁者

of truth.(29)
的事实。

We also believe that censoring and fully removinginformation, unless it violates our community(30)
我们也认为,除非它违反了我们的社区,否则我们会审查并彻底删除信息

standards, is not the expectation from ourcommunity.(31)
标准,不是我们社区的期望。

So we work to reduce the damage that it cando and ensure that, when it is seen, it's(32)
所以我们努力减少它可以做到的损害,并确保在看到时确实如此

surrounded by additional context.(33)
被另外的上下文包围。

MILES O'BRIEN: Even though nearly half ofall Americans now get their news from Facebook,(34)
MILES O'BRIEN:虽然现在有近一半的美国人从Facebook获得新闻,

the company insists it is a technology enterprise,not in the business of making editorial judgments.(35)
该公司坚持认为它是一家科技企业,而不是进行编辑判断的业务。

So they are outsourcing the work.(36)
所以他们正在外包工作。

The most clear-cut problem, content that isdemonstrably false.(37)
最明确的问题,内容显然是错误的。

To grapple with that, they have turned toa 20 third-party fact-checkers globally, including(38)
为了解决这个问题,他们在全球范围内转向了20个第三方事实核查人员,其中包括

one of the Internet's original arbiters offact from fiction, Snopes.com.(39)
互联网的一个原创仲裁者,来自小说Snopes.com。

We caught up with managing editor Brooke Binkowski,a former newspaper and radio reporter.(40)
我们赶上了前报社和电台记者Brooke Binkowski的总编辑。

She works at home or at a neighborhood coffeeshop in San Diego.(41)
她在圣迭戈的家中或社区咖啡店工作。

And is this a typical day?(42)
这是典型的一天吗?

Busy day?(43)
忙碌的一天?

Yes, OK.(44)
好的。

BROOKE BINKOWSKI, Managing Editor, Snopes.com:This is a busier-than-normal day.(45)
Snopes.com执行编辑BROOKE BINKOWSKI:这是一个比平时更忙的日子。

MILES O'BRIEN: Facebook reached out to Snopesto be among its outside fact-checkers in 2016.(46)
MILES O'BRIEN:Facebook在2016年与Snopes达成了其外部事实检查。

BROOKE BINKOWSKI: It's gone from probablyeight-hour days for all of us to more like(47)
BROOKE BINKOWSKI:大概八个小时的时间里,我们所有人都变得越来越喜欢

12-, 15-hour days now because there's justso much to tackle, and we all are true believers,(48)
现在需要12小时15小时,因为要解决这么多问题,我们都是真正的信徒,

basically.(49)
基本上。

We all think that it's important, what we'redoing.(50)
我们都认为这很重要,我们正在做什么。

MILES O'BRIEN: Facebook says when a storyis debunked by fact-checkers, it reduces its(51)
MILES O'BRIEN:脸书说当一个故事被事实检查者揭穿时,它会减少它

reach by 80 percent.(52)
达到80%。

But Binkowski remains skeptical.(53)
但Binkowski仍然怀疑。

BROOKE BINKOWSKI: I still am not convincedthat it's making a huge difference.(54)
BROOKE BINKOWSKI:我仍然不相信这会产生巨大的影响。

MILES O'BRIEN: Part of the problem?(55)
MILES O'BRIEN:问题的一部分?

Old-fashioned shoe-leather reporting, makingcalls to sources, doing the research, sometimes(56)
老式的鞋革报道,有时候会打电话给消息来源,做研究

even taking a trip to a real library, takestime.(57)
即使是去真正的图书馆旅行也需要时间。

BROOKE BINKOWSKI: Mark Twain famously said,what is it, a lie can travel halfway around(58)
BROOKE BINKOWSKI:马克吐温着名的说,它是什么,谎言可以在半路上走

the world while the truth is still puttingon its shoes.(59)
这个世界,而真相仍然在穿上它的鞋子。

I think it's gotten so bad now that a liecan travel like three times around the world,(60)
我认为现在情​​况变得如此糟糕以至于谎言可能会在全世界三次出行,

completely change, affect the perspectivesand the votes of thousands of people, and(61)
彻底改变,影响数千人的观点和投票,并且

wreak havoc all over the place while the truthis still kind of getting out of bed.(62)
当真相仍然起床时,会在整个地方造成严重破坏。

It's just happened much faster, and it's overwhelming.(63)
这只是发生得更快,而且是压倒性的。

MILES O'BRIEN: At Facebook, they are keenlyaware of this, but they see no easy fix, either(64)
MILES O'BRIEN:在Facebook上,他们敏锐地意识到这一点,但他们也看不到任何简单的解决方法

from humans or machines.(65)
来自人类或机器。

Is it possible to match the rate at whichpeople use the product?(66)
有可能与人们使用产品的速度相匹配吗?

TESSA LYONS: If we're always waiting for individualfacts to be reviewed, that is going to be(67)
TESSA LYONS:如果我们一直在等待审查个人事实,那将是

slow in each case.(68)
在每种情况下都很慢。

But by working with the fact-checkers if we'reable to understand the pages, the domains(69)
但是,如果我们能够理解页面和域,就可以与事实检查器一起工作

who repeatedly spread this type of information,then there's more work that we can do upstream(70)
谁反复传播这类信息,那么我们可以在上游做更多的工作

to stop it earlier.(71)
尽早停止它。

MILES O'BRIEN: They are also looking upstreamfor spammers who create content that it is(72)
MILES O'BRIEN:他们也在为创造内容的垃圾邮件发送者寻找上游

factually correct, but misleading, incompleteor polarizing.(73)
事实上正确,但误导,不完整或极端化。

It's often called clickbait.(74)
它通常被称为clickbait。

To try and defend against this, Facebook isusing an artificial intelligence technique(75)
为了防御这一点,Facebook正在使用人工智能技术

called machine learning classification.(76)
称为机器学习分类。

The idea?(77)
这个想法?

Feed the computer reams of clickbait examples,so it can find patterns and learn how to spot(78)
提供clickbait示例的计算机大量数据,以便找到模式并学习如何识别

this material and send it to the bottom ofthe News Feed.(79)
此材料并将其发送到新闻Feed的底部。

So, with artificial intelligence, you canmake the algorithm smart enough to identify(80)
因此,使用人工智能,可以使算法足够智能以识别

what is clickbait from a spammer?(81)
什么是垃圾邮件发送者的clickbait?

TESSA LYONS: This is using a machine learningclassifier in order to help us scale this(82)
TESSA LYONS:这是使用机器学习分类器来帮助我们扩展这一点

problem, because,at two billion people, wewant to ensure that our solutions don't require(83)
问题,因为在20亿人口中,我们希望确保我们的解决方案不需要

individual manual review, but, rather, theycan scale across the platform.(84)
个人手动审查,但是,他们可以在整个平台上进行扩展。

MILES O'BRIEN: Producer Cameron Hickey hasbeen developing his own tool to identify the(85)
MILES O'BRIEN:制片人Cameron Hickey一直在开发他自己的工具来识别

junk as part of our reporting.(86)
垃圾作为我们报告的一部分。

In doing so, he has seen the limits of machinelearning and the persistence of the adversary.(87)
在这样做的过程中,他看到了机器学习的局限性和对手的坚持。

CAMERON HICKEY: Using software to recognizepatterns and then do something based on those(88)
CAMERON HICKEY:使用软件识别模式,然后根据这些模式做一些事情

patterns that you recognize is only as goodas a pattern remaining consistent.(89)
您认识的模式只与保持一致的模式一样好。

And the whole point of this problem is thatthe people who are trying to publish content(90)
这个问题的关键在于那些试图发布内容的人

like this, they're adaptive, right?(91)
像这样,他们是适应性的,对吧?

So as soon as you shut down one avenue, theymove to another avenue.(92)
所以一旦你关闭了一条大道,他们就会转移到另一条大道。

MILES O'BRIEN: Historically, junk news producershave taken advantage of the fact that most(93)
MILES O'BRIEN:从历史上看,垃圾新闻制作人已经充分利用了这一事实

everything that appears in the Facebook NewsFeed looks the same, whether it's heavily(94)
Facebook News Feed中出现的所有内容看起来都是相同的,无论是严重的

researched and vetted journalism or pure junk.(95)
研究和审查新闻或纯垃圾。

In the days when we bought newspapers andmagazines at newsstands or supermarkets, it(96)
在报摊或超市买报纸和杂志的日子里,

was easier to identify the difference betweenquality and junk.(97)
更容易识别质量和垃圾之间的差异。

Facebook is developing ways to give its userssome clues in labs like this one.(98)
Facebook正在开发一些方法来为其用户提供一些像这样的实验室的线索。

GRACE JACKSON, Facebook: So, what's goingto happen is, there's going to be red dots(99)
GRACE JACKSON,Facebook:所以会发生的是,会出现红点

that pop up on the screen.(100)
在屏幕上弹出。

I just want you to follow them with your eye.(101)
我只是想让你用你的眼睛跟着他们。

MILES O'BRIEN: Grace Jackson is a quantitativeuser experience researcher at Facebook.(102)
MILES O'BRIEN:Grace Jackson是Facebook的量化用户体验研究员。

She is showing me how she tracks eye movementsas a user reads a News Feed.(103)
她向我展示了如何在用户阅读新闻Feed时跟踪眼球运动。

She's testing to see how easily I recognizevisual cues that an article has been fact-checked(104)
她正在进行测试,看看我是如何轻松地识别视觉线索,以确认文章已经过实际检查

or links are added for context.(105)
或为上下文添加链接。

I blew by it.(106)
我被它吹了。

GRACE JACKSON: Yes.(107)
GRACE JACKSON:是的。

So...(108)
所以...

MILES O'BRIEN: I think you need a little morethere.(109)
MILES O'BRIEN:我想你需要多一点。

GRACE JACKSON: This was our original designthat we had tested and learned that a lot(110)
GRACE JACKSON:这是我们原来的设计,我们已经测试了很多

of people skipped right over it and neversaw the entry point over here.(111)
的人跳过它,从来没有看到这里的切入点。

MILES O'BRIEN: Well, it's not obvious that'sa click point, right?(112)
MILES O'BRIEN:好吧,这不是一个明显的点击点,对吧?

GRACE JACKSON: Exactly.(113)
GRACE JACKSON:的确如此。

MILES O'BRIEN: The eye-tracking data helpsproduct designer Jeff Smith as he ponders(114)
MILES O'BRIEN:眼动数据可帮助产品设计师杰夫史密斯深思

new ways to give users clues about the credibilityof information.(115)
新的方式为用户提供有关信息可信度的线索。

JEFF SMITH, Facebook: We're in this new spaceand age where we're trying to design for new(116)
JEFF SMITH,Facebook:我们正处在这个新的空间和时代,我们正试图为新设计

mechanisms that people those credibility cuesthat used to be there via the publisher on(117)
那些曾经通过出版商出现在那里的信誉暗示的机制

the supermarket aisle or the newsstand.(118)
超市走道或报摊。

MILES O'BRIEN: He's working on a design thatmore clearly identifies articles that have(119)
MILES O'BRIEN:他正在研究一种能够更清晰地识别文章的设计

been debunked, provides context, related articles,and information about the publisher.(120)
被揭穿,提供上下文,相关文章和关于出版商的信息。

JEFF SMITH: I'm trying to give the user asmuch information as possible in a way that(121)
杰夫·史密斯:我试图以这种方式尽可能多地向用户提供信息

they can easily sort of digest and understand,without getting in the way.(122)
他们可以轻松排序和理解,而不会阻碍。

MILES O'BRIEN: The Facebook News Feed algorithmis finely tuned to hold our attention, originally(123)
MILES O'BRIEN:最初,Facebook新闻馈送算法经过精心调整以吸引我们的注意力

without an emphasis on the quality of thecontent.(124)
而不强调内容的质量。

But the company says it is trying to changethat.(125)
但该公司表示正试图改变这种情况。

ALEX HARDIMAN, Facebook: We want to make surethat the news people see is high quality.(126)
ALEX HARDIMAN,Facebook:我们希望确保新闻人士看到的是高质量的。

And we didn't have that stance before.(127)
我们之前没有这种立场。

And so it's a pretty radical departure interms of the way that we have been thinking(128)
就我们一直在想的方式而言,这是一个非常激进的离开

about news, and I think a really worthwhileone.(129)
关于新闻,我认为是非常值得的。

MILES O'BRIEN: Alex Hardiman is the directorof products for news.(130)
MILES O'BRIEN:Alex Hardiman是新闻产品总监。

She is leading Facebook's effort to identifynews sources that are credible, trustworthy(131)
她领导Facebook努力确定可靠,可靠的新闻来源

and authentic.(132)
和真实的。

They're turning to their users for the answer,asking them to rate news sources they trust,(133)
他们转向他们的用户寻求答案,要求他们评估他们信任的新闻来源,

and feeding those rankings into the News Feedalgorithm to determine what sources should(134)
并将这些排名提供给新闻提要算法以确定哪些来源应该

rise to the top.(135)
上升到顶峰。

With so many people getting their news fromFacebook, why don't you have a newsroom?(136)
有这么多人从Facebook上得到他们的消息,为什么你们没有新闻编辑室?

ALEX HARDIMAN: Because, for us, thinking throughwhat quality means doesn't require us to have(137)
ALEX HARDIMAN:因为对我们来说,思考质量意味着什么并不需要我们拥有

a newsroom.(138)
一个新闻室。

We're really trying to make sure that we pullin great information from publishers and from(139)
我们确实在努力确保我们能够从发布商和收件人那里获得大量信息

the people who use Facebook to make thesedecisions.(140)
使用Facebook做出这些决定的人。

MILES O'BRIEN: But, if given the choice, willusers of Facebook choose quality over junk?(141)
MILES O'BRIEN:但是,如果给出选择,Facebook的用户是否会选择垃圾质量?

The hyperpartisan content publisher we foundin California, Cyrus Massoumi, is skeptical.(142)
我们在加利福尼亚州发现的超级党派内容出版商Cyrus Massoumi对此持怀疑态度。

CYRUS MASSOUMI, Truth Examiner: They aren'tNew York Times readers, necessarily.(143)
CYRUS MASSOUMI,真相考官:他们不是纽约时报的读者,必然。

Maybe some of them are, but the majority ofthem just want a 250- to 350-word article(144)
也许他们中的一些人是,但他们中的大多数人只想要一篇250至350字的文章

which will sort of like get them a littlebit fired up.(145)
这将有点像让他们有点开火。

MILES O'BRIEN: And the numbers back him up.(146)
MILES O'BRIEN:这些数字支持他。

His Truth Examiner page has 3.8 million fans,and the stories he publishes generate a much(147)
他的真相考官页面拥有380万粉丝,他发布的故事产生了很多

higher rate of likes and shares than The NewYork Times and The Washington Post.(148)
喜欢和份额比纽约时报和华盛顿邮报更高。

CYRUS MASSOUMI: Nobody wants to read thatstuff when they're own their phone, which(149)
CYRUS MASSOUMI:当他们拥有自己的手机时,没有人想阅读这些内容

is what everybody's doing when they're onFacebook.(150)
是每个人在Facebook上所做的。

Like, nobody pulls out their phone and goeslike, aha, I would love to read this 5,000-word(151)
就像没有人拿出他们的电话一样,我会喜欢阅读这个5,000字

profile of the endangered giraffe in the Congo.(152)
刚果的濒危长颈鹿轮廓。

MILES O'BRIEN: As long as users continue tolike and share junk news, should Facebook(153)
MILES O'BRIEN:只要用户继续喜欢和分享垃圾消息,应该使用Facebook

redefine its role as a publisher?(154)
重新定义其作为发布者的角色?

BROOKE BINKOWSKI: I think that they reallyneed to come to terms with the fact that they(155)
BROOKE BINKOWSKI:我认为他们确实需要接受他们的事实

are a media company, on top of everythingelse, because, right now, they keep saying(156)
是一家媒体公司,因为现在他们一直在说

they're tech, they're tech, they're tech.(157)
他们技术高超,技术高超,技术高超。

They're trying to avoid it all coming crashingdown when they finally say, we're media, because(158)
他们试图避免当他们最终说,我们是媒体的时候它们全部崩溃,因为

then all those questions will come: Well,why didn't you do this?(159)
那么所有这些问题都会出现:那么,你为什么不这样做呢?

Why didn't you do it that way?(160)
你为什么不这样做?

Why didn't you listen to this?(161)
你为什么不听这个?

MILES O'BRIEN: Is it time for the companyto take a little more responsibility about(162)
MILES O'BRIEN:是时候让公司承担更多的责任

what is in the News Feed, what is on the trendingstories in an active editorial way?(163)
“新闻联播”中的内容是什么,以积极的编辑方式,热门故事中的内容如何?

ALEX HARDIMAN: I say absolutely yes to responsibility.(164)
ALEX HARDIMAN:我对责任说绝对是。

The tactics as to whether or not active editorialway, I would say we don't know.(165)
关于是否积极编辑方式的策略,我会说我们不知道。

So, the first part, yes, we have a responsibilityto making sure that the news people see on(166)
所以,第一部分,是的,我们有责任确保新闻人士看到

Facebook is high-quality.(167)
Facebook是高品质的。

MILES O'BRIEN: The problem is far from solved,and the 2018 midterm elections are looming.(168)
米尔斯奥布莱恩:问题还远未解决,2018年中期选举即将来临。

Even as the political races heat up, hereat Facebook, they're running their own race,(169)
即使政治竞赛升温,在Facebook上,他们也在跑自己的比赛,

with no finish line in sight.(170)
没有终点线。

I'm Miles O'Brien for the "PBS NewsHour" inMenlo Park, California.(171)
我是Miles O'Brien在加州门洛帕克的“PBS NewsHour”。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Fascinating.(172)
JUDY WOODRUFF:迷人。

And you can watch all of the stories in Miles'series about junk news online at PBS.org/NewsHour.(173)
你可以在PBS.org/NewsHour上在线观看Miles's系列关于垃圾新闻的所有故事。


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