As Taliban peace talks resume, what's at stake for Afghan women?
2019-11-29 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: President Trump returned earlythis morning from a surprise trip to Afghanistan,(1)
朱迪·伍德鲁夫(JUDY WOODRUFF):特朗普总统今天一大早从一次意外的阿富汗之旅中返回,

where he said that talks between the U.S.and the Taliban had restarted.(2)
他说,美国和塔利班之间的谈判已经重新开始。

At stake, the prospects for peace in thisconflict-racked nation, but also at stake(3)
在这个充满冲突的国家,和平的前景可危,但也but可危

progress for women there who, when ruled bythe Taliban, could not work, study or even(4)
在塔利班统治下无法工作,学习或什至无法工作的妇女的进步

leave the house without a male escort.(5)
没有男性护送就离开家。

Special correspondent Jane Ferguson reports.(6)
特别通讯员简·弗格森报道。

JANE FERGUSON: In one of the toughest countriesin the world to be a woman, this clinic offers(7)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):在世界上最难做女人的国家之一,这家诊所提供

a refuge.(8)
避难所

The Afghan women visiting Dr. Najmussama Shefajothis morning will get some of the best care(9)
今天早上访问纳杰姆萨玛·谢法霍医生的阿富汗妇女将得到一些最好的护理

in the country.(10)
在国内。

DR.(11)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO, OB-GYN: This is X-rayof the uterus and the fallopian tubes.(12)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO,妇产科:这是子宫和输卵管的X射线。

JANE FERGUSON: She is one of Afghanistan'stop gynecologists, an expert on women's reproductive(13)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):她是阿富汗顶级妇科医生之一,是女性生殖方面的专家

health.(14)
健康。

Dr. Shefajo gave us a tour of her clinic,full of the latest technology that she imported(15)
Shefajo博士带我们参观了她的诊所,里面充满了她导入的最新技术

herself.(16)
她自己。

For the patients that you see, how importantis this sort of equipment?(17)
对于您看到的患者,这种设备有多重要?

DR.(18)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: For the patient, we reachto the diagnosis soon, and there is no need(19)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:对于患者,我们会尽快做出诊断,因此无需

to go out of the country.(20)
出国。

JANE FERGUSON: So it saves lives?(21)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):这样可以挽救生命?

DR.(22)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: Yes, of course.(23)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:是的,当然。

This is the nose.(24)
这是鼻子

This is the mouth(25)
这是嘴

JANE FERGUSON: To Dr. Shefajo, interactionwith her patients is important.(26)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):对谢法霍医生而言,与患者的互动非常重要。

DR.(27)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: Here, the mother seesthe baby, her own ultrasound.(28)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:在这里,妈妈看到了婴儿,她自己做了超声波检查。

JANE FERGUSON: How do they react?(29)
简·弗格森:他们如何反应?

DR.(30)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: Yes.(31)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:是的。

They are very happy.(32)
他们非常快乐。

Right now, they know this is the head, thisis the heart, this is the stomach, because(33)
现在,他们知道这是头部,这是心脏,这是胃,因为

I teach them.(34)
我教他们。

JANE FERGUSON: That's one reason women lovecoming here.(35)
简·弗格森:这就是女人喜欢来这里的原因之一。

It would have been absolutely unthinkablefor Afghan women just 20, even 10 years ago(36)
对于仅20岁,甚至10年前的阿富汗妇女来说,这绝对是不可想象的

to have had this kind of technology.(37)
拥有这种技术。

Dr. Shefajo knows that all too well.(38)
Shefajo博士对此非常了解。

She began her career delivering babies onmud floors in Taliban-controlled parts of(39)
她的职业生涯开始于在塔利班控制的地区的泥地上生婴儿。

the country.(40)
国家。

When you were working under Taliban rule,did you ever imagine that one day you would(41)
在塔利班统治下工作时,您是否曾想过有一天会

have a clinic like this, equipment like this?(42)
有像这样的诊所,像这样的设备?

DR.(43)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: I was a -- I had a hope.(44)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:我是-我有希望。

JANE FERGUSON: You pictured it?(45)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):您想象过吗?

DR.(46)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: Yes.(47)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:是的。

Yes.(48)
是。

JANE FERGUSON: Since the U.S. invasion, Afghanwomen like Dr. Shefajo have, through their(49)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):自美国入侵以来,谢法霍博士(Shefajo)等阿富汗妇女通过她们的

own hard work and self-belief, built incrediblenew lives.(50)
自己的努力和自信心,建立了令人难以置信的新生活。

That's why, today, they watch the news anxiously.(51)
因此,今天他们焦急地观看新闻。

A major campaign promise by President Trumpwas to bring American troops home.(52)
特朗普总统的一项重大竞选承诺是将美军带回家。

And in September, he came close to makinga deal with the Taliban, after more than nine(53)
在9月份之后,他已经接近与塔利班达成交易,

months of negotiations in Qatar, negotiationswhere Afghan women quite literally had no(54)
在卡塔尔进行了数月的谈判,阿富汗妇女从字面上看没有进行谈判

seat at the table.(55)
坐在桌子上。

The Taliban ruled Afghanistan from 1996 untiltheir ouster by U.S.-led forces in 2001.(56)
塔利班从1996年开始统治阿富汗,直到2001年被美国领导的部队驱逐为止。

That was a deeply cruel time for Afghan women.(57)
对于阿富汗妇女来说,那是一个非常残酷的时期。

The Taliban's harsh interpretation of Islamiclaw afforded them virtually no rights.(58)
塔利班对伊斯兰法律的苛刻解释使他们几乎没有权利。

Trump's deal has fallen apart for now, butwomen like Freshta Karim are afraid their(59)
特朗普的协议目前已经破裂,但像Freshta Karim这样的女人担心

rights could still be pushed aside to makeit happen.(60)
权利仍然可以搁置以实现它。

She's part of a new generation, educated Afghanwomen completely invested in this country's(61)
她是新一代受过教育的阿富汗妇女的一部分,完全投资于该国的

future.(62)
未来。

She discovered Afghan children had troublegetting hold of books to read, so she gathered(63)
她发现阿富汗儿童难以读书,所以她聚集了

donations and bought a few old buses, turningthem into mobile libraries.(64)
捐赠并购买了几辆旧公共汽车,将它们变成了移动图书馆。

We joined Freshta in one poor neighborhoodof Kabul on her way to a school.(65)
在她去学校的路上,我们在喀布尔一个贫民区加入了Freshta。

FRESHTA KARIM, Activist: It allows them tohave general knowledge and broaden their horizons(66)
维权人士FRESHTA KARIM:这使他们拥有常识并开阔了眼界

of life and understanding of world, and inspirethem, inspire them to think about what they(67)
生活和对世界的理解,并激励他们,激励他们思考自己的想法

want to be, and also understand differentcharacters' roles, to put themselves into(68)
想要成为,也了解不同角色的角色,以使自己成为

different characters' shoe, and start havingan understanding of complex human feelings.(69)
不同角色的鞋子,并开始理解复杂的人类感受。

And I think this all adds to one's criticalthinking.(70)
我认为这一切都增加了自己的批判性思维。

JANE FERGUSON: Freshta won a scholarship tostudy for a master's degree in public policy(71)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):Freshta获得奖学金,攻读公共政策硕士学位

at Oxford University in England.(72)
在英国牛津大学。

After returning to Afghanistan, she took ajob as an analyst with the government.(73)
回到阿富汗后,她在政府任职分析师。

But her heart was elsewhere.(74)
但是她的心在别处。

FRESHTA KARIM: And whenever I would work withchildren, that would make me happy, because(75)
FRESHTA KARIM:每当我和孩子们一起工作时,那会让我感到高兴,因为

Afghanistan is one of the youngest countriesin the world.(76)
阿富汗是世界上最年轻的国家之一。

And it made so much sense to me to work withpeople who will be the future of this country.(77)
与我一起工作将成为这个国家的未来的人对我来说意义非凡。

JANE FERGUSON: How do you keep hopeful andkeep motivated and keep inspired to keep doing(78)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):您如何保持希望并保持动力,并不断激发进取心

this work?(79)
这项工作?

FRESHTA KARIM: I think children.(80)
FRESHTA KARIM:我想孩子们。

We have the responsibility to create thatopportunity for them to meet their potential.(81)
我们有责任为他们创造机会,以发挥他们的潜力。

JANE FERGUSON: Her potential is at stake,however, if the Taliban returns to power.(82)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):但是,如果塔利班重新掌权,她的潜力将受到威胁。

FRESHTA KARIM: I think many of us -- or atleast I can talk about myself.(83)
FRESHTA KARIM:我想我们很多人,或者至少我可以谈论自己。

I might push back for as long as I can, toresist and to fight for the city that we have(84)
我可能会竭尽所能地反抗并为我们拥有的城市而战

built it ourselves.(85)
自己建造。

JANE FERGUSON: Outside major cities, muchof life looks similar to the way it did under(86)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):在主要城市以外,生活看起来与在大城市中的生活很相似

Taliban rule.(87)
塔利班统治。

Child marriage is rampant, as is violenceagainst women.(88)
童婚以及对妇女的暴力行为猖ramp。

It's in the home that women are most at risk.(89)
妇女在家里最容易受到威胁。

Those that escape abusive husbands are thelucky ones.(90)
那些逃避虐待丈夫的人是幸运者。

WOMAN (through translator): The day I lefthome, my husband had beaten me very badly,(91)
女人(通过翻译):我离开家的那天,我丈夫非常殴打我,

and I had injuries on my head.(92)
而且我的头受伤了。

So I left with my children and ran to thepolice station.(93)
于是我带着孩子们离开去,跑到派出所。

JANE FERGUSON: This young woman, whom we won'tname for her own safety, is one of them.(94)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):这名年轻女士就是其中一位,我们不会以她自己的安全为名。

The police brought her to this shelter.(95)
警察把她带到这个收容所。

Her husband, she tells us, is a violent drugaddict.(96)
她告诉我们,她的丈夫是一名暴力吸毒者。

WOMAN (through translator): When he was beatingme, I was thinking about how I could run away.(97)
女人(通过翻译):当他殴打我时,我在想如何逃跑。

But how would I raise the children and keepthem in school?(98)
但是,我将如何抚养这些孩子并将其留在学校?

JANE FERGUSON: Amid a climate of fear andintimidation, even the shelters can be vulnerable(99)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):在恐惧和恐吓的气氛中,即使庇护所也可能很脆弱。

places.(100)
的地方。

This one is managed by a U.S.-based charity.(101)
这是由一家美国慈善机构管理的。

And those who run it tell us people in thecommunity still opposed to women's rights(102)
那些运行它的人告诉我们社区中的人们仍然反对妇女的权利

spread lies about the shelters, and the facilitiescome under attack.(103)
庇护所四处散布谎言,设施遭到攻击。

Even the location is kept secret, and we arenot allowed to film anything that could betray(104)
即使是地点也被保密,我们也不允许拍摄任何可能出卖的东西

where it is.(105)
在哪儿。

But for thousands of battered women who havecome through here, it's a lifeline, women(106)
但是对于成千上万受虐的妇女来说,这是一条生命线,妇女

like this 22-year-old, who escaped her abusivehusband six months ago.(107)
就像这个22岁的女孩一样,她六个月前逃脱了虐待她的丈夫。

WOMAN (through translator): My husband wasa drug smuggler, and he always used to keep(108)
女人(通过翻译):我丈夫是个毒品走私者,他总是

knives and guns.(109)
刀和枪。

Every night, I thought he might kill me.(110)
每天晚上,我以为他会杀了我。

JANE FERGUSON: If this shelters had not beenhere, if this facility did not exist, where(111)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):如果没有这个庇护所,如果没有这个庇护所,

would you have gone?(112)
你会走吗?

WOMAN: If there had not been a shelter likethis, I might have killed myself, because(113)
女人:如果没有这样的庇护所,我可能会自杀,因为

there is no place for a woman to go if thereare not these shelters.(114)
如果没有这些庇护所,没有女人可以去的地方。

JANE FERGUSON: Elsewhere in Kabul, we seewhat she means.(115)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):在喀布尔的其他地方,我们明白了她的意思。

The burns unit at Istiklal Government Hospitalis a depressing place, not just because of(116)
Istiklal政府医院的烧伤科是一个令人沮丧的地方,不仅仅是因为

the power cuts and poor hygiene.(117)
断电,卫生不良。

Dr. Abdul Khaled Waqila has seen an increasein self-immolation, women pouring gasoline(118)
Abdul Khaled Waqila博士发现自焚现象增加,妇女倒汽油

over themselves and lighting a match.(119)
在自己身上点燃火柴。

DR.(120)
博士

ABDUL KHALED WAQILA, Istiklal Government Hospital(through translator): It is only the burns(121)
Istiklal政府医院的ABDUL KHALED WAQILA(通过翻译):只是烧伤

patients who come to us.(122)
来找我们的病人。

Those who eat poison or do something elseto themselves go to another part of the hospital.(123)
那些吃了毒药或自己做其他事情的人去了医院的另一部分。

So I can only say that the easiest thing forthem to use is gasoline.(124)
因此,我只能说他们最容易使用的是汽油。

They have access to it.(125)
他们可以访问它。

JANE FERGUSON: Sat on the end of her bed,and completely alone, this young woman has(126)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):这位年轻女子坐在床尾,完全独自一人坐着

burns across much of her body and a deep gashover her throat.(127)
烧伤了她的大部分身体,喉咙深深地划破了伤口。

She responds to questions with just a whisper.(128)
她轻声回答。

At first, she told the doctor it was an accident,but later confided it wasn't.(129)
起初,她告诉医生这是一次意外,但后来却坦言并非如此。

There are laws to protect women in Afghanistan,but where the letter of that law becomes enforcement(130)
阿富汗有保护妇女的法律,但该法律的条文成为强制性法律

is the bigger challenge.(131)
是更大的挑战。

SHAHARZAD AKBAR, Afghanistan Human RightsCommission: There is a huge distance between(132)
阿富汗人权委员会SHAHARZAD AKBAR:两者之间相距甚远

laws and implementation.(133)
法律和执行。

JANE FERGUSON: Shaharzad Akbar is the newhead of Afghanistan's Human Rights Commission.(134)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):沙哈扎德·阿克巴尔(Shaharzad Akbar)是阿富汗人权委员会的新负责人。

SHAHARZAD AKBAR: It requires not only changingthe legal framework, which there have been(135)
SHAHARZAD AKBAR:它不仅需要更改已经存在的法律框架

improvements in the legal framework, but alsoit's changing the mentality and behavior of(136)
法律框架的改进,同时也改变了人们的思想和行为

people who deliver justice across Afghanistan,you know?(137)
那些在阿富汗各地伸张正义的人,你知道吗?

JANE FERGUSON: Akbar won a scholarship tostudy abroad, and completed a master's degree(138)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):阿克巴(Akbar)获得了留学奖学金,并获得了硕士学位

at Smith College in Massachusetts.(139)
在马萨诸塞州史密斯学院就读。

She wanted to apply that education to makinglife better for women in Afghanistan.(140)
她想将这种教育应用于改善阿富汗妇女的生活。

SHAHARZAD AKBAR: For many women I know, theyaspire to lives different and better than(141)
SHAHARZAD AKBAR:对于我认识的许多女性来说,她们渴望与众不同,更好的生活

their mothers.(142)
他们的母亲。

For some, it's as simple as saying, you knowwhat, I want to have access to a clinic when(143)
对于某些人来说,这就像说,您知道什么,我想在需要时可以去诊所

I give birth.(144)
我生

That's it.(145)
而已。

I'm not interested in education.(146)
我对教育不感兴趣。

I'm not interested in becoming a pilot.(147)
我对成为飞行员不感兴趣。

I want to marry.(148)
我想结婚。

I want to have children.(149)
我要孩子

But I know that it's my right to have accessto health care when I give birth.(150)
但是我知道我分娩时有权获得医疗保健。

JANE FERGUSON: At just 31 years old, she feelshuge pressure to lead the way for other Afghan(151)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):她只有31岁,她为带领其他阿富汗人带路而感到巨大的压力。

women.(152)
女人。

SHAHARZAD AKBAR: It changes a lot for theyoung -- the younger girls who are watching(153)
SHAHARZAD AKBAR:对于正在观看的年轻女孩来说,这发生了很大变化

us.(154)
我们。

I am -- every day, I am conscious of beingwatched.(155)
我-每天都在警觉着自己。

JANE FERGUSON: They also watch to see whatchoices powerful politicians are making.(156)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):他们还观察着有实力的政治家正在做出哪些选择。

If the Taliban were to return to power, shesays, Afghanistan's women risk losing everything.(157)
她说,如果塔利班重新掌权,阿富汗妇女有失去一切的危险。

SHAHARZAD AKBAR: Women were stoned by them.(158)
SHAHARZAD AKBAR:妇女被她们打死了。

Women were flogged by them, and this continuouslyhappening in areas under their control.(159)
妇女被她们鞭打,这在她们控制的地区不断发生。

Now imagine the possibility of them not onlycoming back to power, but also determining(160)
现在想象一下,它们不仅可能重新掌权,而且还会确定

what the laws of Afghanistan will look like.(161)
阿富汗的法律将是什么样的。

That's really scary.(162)
真的好恐怖

JANE FERGUSON: Flying up to Badakhshan provincein the rural north of Afghanistan, we met(163)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):飞到阿富汗北部农村的巴达赫尚省,我们遇到了

with a group of 83 Taliban fighters who hadsurrendered to government forces just a few(164)
一群83名塔利班战士向政府军投降

days before.(165)
前几天。

We challenged them on their attitudes.(166)
我们挑战他们的态度。

If the Taliban come back into power, how willthings be different for women this time around?(167)
如果塔利班重新掌权,这次女性的情况会有什么不同?

MAN (through translator): There should besome changes, like in university with co-education.(168)
MAN(通过翻译):应该进行一些更改,例如在大学中接受联合教育。

There shouldn't be things like that, likeyou standing here and not covering yourself,(169)
不应有类似的事情,例如您站在这里不遮掩自己,

wearing this kind of tight clothing.(170)
穿着这种紧身的衣服。

It's not allowed.(171)
这不被允许。

JANE FERGUSON: Would you work with femaleleaders in government?(172)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):您会与政府中的女性领导人合作吗?

MAN (through translator): We are not againstwomen's education, because we do need doctors.(173)
MAN(通过翻译):我们不反对接受女性教育,因为我们确实需要医生。

We need educated females.(174)
我们需要受过教育的女性。

But it should be in a framework of Islamicprinciples.(175)
但这应该在伊斯兰原则的框架内。

JANE FERGUSON: But back in Kabul, Dr. Shefajotells us she sees Islamic principles already(176)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):但是回到喀布尔,谢法霍博士告诉我们她已经看到伊斯兰原则了

being applied by women in their lives everyday, with the services they provide through(177)
妇女每天通过其提供的服务被她们的生活所应用

their professions.(178)
他们的专业。

DR.(179)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: We want our right as awoman, as a doctor, as a mother, and as an(180)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:我们希望我们拥有作为妇女,医生,母亲和母亲的权利。

Afghan, as a Muslim.(181)
阿富汗人,是穆斯林。

JANE FERGUSON: You have daughters.(182)
简·弗格森:你有女儿。

What do you hope for their future?(183)
您对他们的未来有什么希望?

How do you picture it?(184)
您如何看待它?

DR.(185)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: For my elder daughter,I want her to be a pilot.(186)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:对于我的大女儿,我希望她当飞行员。

(LAUGHTER)
DR.(187)
博士

NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO: She is also interestedto travel a lot.(188)
NAJMUSSAMA SHEFAJO:她也很想旅行。

But for the others, they are interested tobe a doctor.(189)
但是对于其他人,他们有兴趣成为一名医生。

JANE FERGUSON: Like their mom.(190)
简·弗格森:喜欢他们的妈妈。

(LAUGHTER)
JANE FERGUSON: As politicians negotiate withthe Taliban to end the war, Afghan women risk(191)
简·弗格森(JANE FERGUSON):随着政界人士与塔利班谈判结束战争,阿富汗妇女冒着冒险的危险

losing their hard-fought freedoms and rights.(192)
失去他们为之奋斗的自由和权利。

They could end up paying a devastating pricefor peace in Afghanistan.(193)
他们最终可能为阿富汗的和平付出毁灭性的代价。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Jane Fergusonin Kabul, Afghanistan.(194)
对于“ PBS NewsHour”,我是阿富汗喀布尔的Jane Ferguson。


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