When Animals Make People Sick
2012-07-11 17:04:32

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.(1)

Researchers estimate that more than two billion people a year get diseases spread by animals. More than two million of them die.(2)
研究人员估计超过 20 亿人通过动物传播的一年得到疾病。超过 200 万人死亡。

Delia Grace is a veterinary epidemiologist -- an expert in the spread of diseases involving animals. She is also a food safety expert.(3)
德利亚宽限期是兽医流行病学家 — — 专家涉及动物疾病的传播。她也是一种食品安全专家。

She works at the International Livestock Research Institute in Nairobi, Kenya. She explains that diseases transmitted between animals and people are called zoonoses.(4)

DELIA GRACE: "A majority of human diseases are actually zoonotic. More than sixty percent of human diseases are transmitted from other vertebrate animals.(5)
DELIA GRACE:"大多数人类疾病都是实际上人畜共患。超过 60%的人类疾病是由其他脊椎动物传染的。

Some of these diseases are pretty common. Some of the food-borne diseases and also diseases such as tuberculosis, leptospirosis are not uncommon. Others are quite rare."(6)
这些疾病的一些是很常见的。有些食物传染的疾病和还疾病,如肺结核、 钩端螺旋体病并不少见。其他人是相当罕见。

Delia Grace says there are many different infection pathways for a person. Probably the most common one is for people to get sick from food.(7)

Other transmission pathways include direct contact with animals. And some diseases can be transmitted through water or through the air.(8)

DELIA GRACE: "Diseases like avian influenza or mad cow disease have actually killed very few people.(9)
DELIA GRACE:"疾病像禽流感或疯牛病其实杀了人很少。

But they are of interest because some of them have the potential to kill a lot of people -- diseases like the Spanish flu after the First World War or HIV/AIDS, both of which were originally zoonoses."(10)
但他们是感兴趣的因为其中一些有可能杀死很多人 — — 像后的第一次世界大战或艾滋病毒/艾滋病,这两个原本人畜共患疾病的西班牙流感疾病。"

Delia Grace is the lead author of a new report called "Mapping of Poverty and Likely Zoonoses Hotspots." She points out that poverty and disease are closely linked, so preventing the transmission of animal diseases could help reduce poverty.(11)

The report, for Britain's Department for International Development, lists places where the diseases are most common.(12)

The report lists places where a disease has existed for a long time, a so-called endemic zoonosis, as well as places with new threats.(13)

DELIA GRACE: "So in terms of the hotspots of the zoonosis which are there all the time -- not the new zoonosis, but what we call the endemic zoonosis -- we identified three countries which bear the greatest burden of these diseases.(14)
DELIA GRACE:"因此,在人兽共患病的热点都有所有的时间 — — 不是新的动物传染病,但我们称之为特有人兽共患病--哪些方面我们发现这些疾病的最大负担的三个国家。

And those are India, Ethiopia and Nigeria. But in terms of the new diseases -- the diseases which haven't been there, but are emerging -- the hotspots are very different.(15)
那些是印度、 埃塞俄比亚和尼日利亚。但在新的疾病 — — 而没有去过那儿,但正在出现的疾病 — — 热点有很大不同。

They appear to be western United States and western Europe."(16)

Delia Grace says things could get worse in the coming years as meat production increases to feed a growing world population.(17)

High production farms often raise animals close together. Crowding can allow diseases to spread quickly.(18)

Another concern is the use of antibiotics in food animals, not only to prevent and treat diseases but to increase growth.(19)

The report says an "incentive-based" system to encourage safer methods of raising animals could be more effective than increasing food inspections.(20)

For example, small farmers could receive training and other help that would lead to official certification that their products are safe.(21)

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report. I'm Jim Tedder.(22)

Contributing: Joe De Capua(23)

All Articles fetched from Voice of America RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds and copyrighted by voanews.com