Why Nigeria has more HIV-positive infants than anywhere else
2018-06-13 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Now the next in our serieson the challenge of ending the AIDS epidemic.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:现在是关于结束艾滋病疫情的系列文章中的下一篇。

Earlier, we visited Russia and looked at thedifficulties that nation is having with its(2)
早些时候,我们访问了俄罗斯,并看到了这个国家正在面临的困难

epidemic.(3)
疫情。

Tonight, with support again from the PulitzerCenter, we travel to Nigeria, a nation that's(4)
今晚,在普利策中心的支持下,我们前往尼日利亚,这是一个国家

just 2 percent of the world's population,but accounts for almost a quarter of all HIV-positive(5)
仅占世界人口的2%,但几乎占所有艾滋病毒阳性的四分之一

babies.(6)
婴儿。

William Brangham and producer Jason Kane reporthow one innovative program is showing some(7)
威廉布朗汉姆和制片人贾森凯恩报告如何一个创新计划显示一些

remarkable promise.(8)
卓越的承诺。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The rhythm of Sunday morningin Central Nigeria is slow and steady.(9)
威廉布朗汉姆:尼日利亚中部周日早上的节奏缓慢而稳定。

Close to 1,000 people pack St. Vincent dePaul in Benue state outside the town of Aliade,(10)
在Aliade镇以外的Benue州,近1000人将圣文森特德保罗包围,

singing, praying, offering thanks.(11)
唱歌,祈祷,提供感谢。

This may seem like just a traditional Sundaymass, but what's going on in here is one of(12)
这可能看起来只是一个传统的星期天大众,但是这里发生的是其中之一

the most effective ways of stopping the spreadof HIV.(13)
阻止艾滋病毒传播的最有效方法。

At the end of mass, the priest asks any pregnantwomen and their partners and children to come(14)
在弥撒结束时,牧师要求任何孕妇及其伴侣和孩子来

forward.(15)
前锋。

About 50 people gather near the altar.(16)
约有50人聚集在祭坛附近。

MAN: Defend these mothers and these fathersand their children from every evil.(17)
男子:捍卫这些母亲,这些父亲和他们的孩子免受一切罪恶的侵害。

Be their companion along their pathway throughlife.(18)
成为他们的伴侣沿着他们的生活路径。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: They're given a blessingand invited to a special celebration later(19)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:他们受到了祝福,并在稍后受邀参加特别庆典

that's just for them.(20)
那只是为了他们。

They're told there will be gifts and dancingand some medical care, malaria tests, high(21)
他们被告知会有礼物,跳舞和一些医疗护理,疟疾测试等

blood pressure.(22)
血压。

But the one thing that's not mentioned, theone that's the main point of this program(23)
但是没有提到的一件事,那就是这个计划的主要观点

is HIV.(24)
是HIV。

Amaka Ogidi helped develop this program, whichis called Baby Shower.(25)
Amaka Ogidi帮助开发了这个名为Baby Shower的程序。

She says that because of the stigma aroundHIV, they just can't say it at the beginning.(26)
她说,由于艾滋病病毒的耻辱,他们在一开始就不能说。

Do you think if the priest got up there andsaid, we will give you HIV testing, do you(27)
你认为如果神父在那里说,我们会给你艾滋病毒检测,你呢

think anyone would stand up?(28)
认为任何人都会站起来?

AMAKA OGIDI, Baby Shower: Maybe.(29)
AMAKA OGIDI,婴儿洗澡:可能。

Maybe one or two.(30)
也许一两个。

But, of course, if they stand up and they'recoming, other would, shh, why is he going(31)
但是,当然,如果他们站起来,他们会来,其他人会,呃,他为什么要去

for Baby Shower?(32)
为婴儿洗澡?

Why is he going for the test?(33)
他为什么要参加考试?

That means he must have been living a verydevious life.(34)
这意味着他一定过着非常迂腐的生活。

But when you come to the main shower now,you will get the full detail.(35)
但是当你现在来到主要淋浴,你会得到完整的细节。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: And that's by design?(36)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:那是设计?

AMAKA OGIDI: That's by design.(37)
AMAKA OGIDI:这是设计。

It's no mistake.(38)
这没有错。

It's purposely planned.(39)
这是故意的计划。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: After mass, the pregnantwomen and their partners are weighed and measured(40)
威廉布朗汉姆:大众之后,对孕妇及其伴侣进行称重和测量

and screened for various conditions, thingslike hypertension and hepatitis B, which are(41)
并筛选出各种疾病,如高血压和乙肝等

also real problems in Nigeria.(42)
尼日利亚也存在实际问题。

But the key test is HIV.(43)
但关键测试是艾滋病毒。

AMAKA OGIDI: We need the first 20 completed,so that they can have their shower.(44)
AMAKA OGIDI:我们需要完成前20名,以便他们可以淋浴。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The goal is to find pregnantwomen who are infected and get them on antiretrovirals.(45)
威廉布朗汉姆:目标是找到感染的孕妇并让他们接受抗逆转录病毒治疗。

It will protect them from developing AIDS,but it will also greatly lower the risk that(46)
它将保护他们免于发展艾滋病,但也会大大降低这种风险

they will transmit HIV to their babies.(47)
他们会将HIV传染给他们的婴儿。

Left untreated, that transmission happensroughly 30 percent of the time.(48)
如果不加以处理,那么传输大概有30%的时间。

This kind of effort in Nigeria is long overdue;200 miles away, in the capital, Abuja, 3-year-old(49)
尼日利亚的这种努力早就应该进行了; 200英里外,在首都阿布贾,3岁

Mubarak Isah is dying of AIDS.(50)
穆巴拉克伊萨正在死于艾滋病。

His mother already died.(51)
他的母亲已经死了。

In 2016, roughly 24,000 children died of AIDS-relatedcauses in Nigeria; 12-year-old Yusuf Adamu(52)
2016年,约有24,000名儿童因尼日利亚艾滋病相关原因死亡; 12岁的优素福阿达姆

is also very sick.(53)
也很恶心。

He, too, lost his mother to AIDS.(54)
他也因为艾滋病而失去了母亲。

In Nigeria, roughly 37,000 children were newlyinfected in 2016.(55)
在尼日利亚,2016年约有37,000名儿童新感染。

Over a quarter of a million are living withthe virus.(56)
超过25万的病毒感染了这种病毒。

JON COHEN, "Science": The sorest thumb here,the biggest problem is mother-to-child transmission,(57)
JON COHEN,“科学”:这里最痛苦的拇指,最大的问题是母婴传播,

because it's so easy to stop, relatively speaking.(58)
因为相对而言,停下来很容易。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: We traveled to Nigeria withJon Cohen.(59)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:我们和Jon Cohen一起去了尼日利亚。

He's a reporter for "Science" magazine who'scovered HIV/AIDS around the world, and he(60)
他是“科学”杂志的一名记者,他在世界各地报道艾滋病毒/艾滋病,他也是

was our partner on this series.(61)
是我们这个系列的合作伙伴。

Cohen says that antiretroviral drugs provedtheir worth in the mid to late '90s, the world's(62)
科恩说,抗逆转录病毒药物在世界90年代中后期证明了自己的价值

wealthiest countries pooled their money tohelp beat back the epidemic.(63)
最富有的国家汇集他们的钱来帮助击退这一流行病。

JON COHEN: The first thing they targeted waspregnant women who were infected, because(64)
JON COHEN:他们的首要目标是感染的孕妇,因为

if you got drugs to the women, it cut therate of transmission dramatically.(65)
如果你给女性吸毒,它会显着降低传播速度。

And as the drugs got better and better, itbasically took the rate of transmission down(66)
随着药物越来越好,它基本上降低了传播速度

to almost zero, under 1 percent.(67)
几乎为零,低于1%。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: But those efforts have fallenshort in Nigeria.(68)
威廉布朗汉姆:但是这些努力在尼日利亚已经不足。

One out of every four babies born worldwidewith HIV is born in Nigeria.(69)
每四个出生在世界各地的婴儿中就有一个出生在尼日利亚。

DR.(70)
DR。

SANI ALIYU, Nigerian National Agency for theControl of AIDS: That's really not acceptable,(71)
尼日利亚艾滋病防治机构SANI ALIYU:这实在是不可接受的,

considering that it's a condition that youcan actually abolish.(72)
考虑到这是一个你可以实际取消的条件。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Dr. Sani Aliyu leads Nigeria'sNational Agency for the Control of AIDS.(73)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:Sani Aliyu博士领导尼日利亚国家艾滋病防治机构。

DR.(74)
DR。

SANI ALIYU: My argument has always been, withinthe general population level, it's going to(75)
SANI ALIYU:我的观点一直是,在一般人口的水平上,这是事实

be a lot of work to put everybody with HIVon treatment.(76)
为了让所有艾滋病病毒感染者接受治疗,需要做很多工作。

For pregnant women, it's not the case.(77)
对于孕妇来说,情况并非如此。

Their numbers are small compared to peopleliving with HIV within the general population.(78)
与普通人群中的艾滋病毒感染者相比,他们的人数很少。

So it should be achievable really.(79)
所以它应该是可以实现的。

It should be low-hanging fruit.(80)
它应该是低垂的果实。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Cue the Baby Shower program.(81)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:提示婴儿沐浴计划。

Between the testing and waiting for the results,there's a lot of this, singing, dancing, and(82)
在测试和等待结果之间,有很多这样的,唱歌,跳舞,和

gift-giving.(83)
给礼物。

AMAKA OGIDI: After singing and dancing, weuse this to support them.(84)
AMAKA OGIDI:在唱歌跳舞之后,我们用它来支持他们。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So this is a gift for them?(85)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:这是他们的礼物吗?

AMAKA OGIDI: That's the Baby Shower gift.(86)
AMAKA OGIDI:这是Baby Shower礼物。

We call it mama pack.(87)
我们称之为妈妈包。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Mama pack?(88)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:妈妈包?

AMAKA OGIDI: Yes.(89)
AMAKA OGIDI:是的。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: And what is in there?(90)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:那里有什么?

AMAKA OGIDI: OK.(91)
AMAKA OGIDI:好的。

What we have here, actually, the things thatwill aid them in delivery.(92)
实际上,我们在这里所拥有的将帮助他们交付的东西。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The mama pack contains basicslike diapers and sanitary pads.(93)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:妈妈包含尿布和卫生巾等基础知识。

But there's also medical supplies, rubbingalcohol and clamps for the umbilical cord.(94)
但也有医疗用品,为脐带擦酒精和夹子。

These are necessities the hospital would chargefor.(95)
这些是医院要收费的必需品。

About 40 percent of women here don't givebirth in hospitals.(96)
这里大约40%的女性不会在医院分娩。

They will stay at home or visit local birthingattendants.(97)
他们会留在家中或拜访当地的分娩服务员。

Part of this is just tradition, but part isalso the cost.(98)
其中一部分只是传统,但部分也是成本。

The hope is the mama pack will steer momsto hospitals, where they will get better care,(99)
希望是妈妈包会引导妈妈去医院,在那里他们会得到更好的照顾,

especially if they're HIV-positive.(100)
特别是如果他们是艾滋病毒阳性。

So if they come in with this bag, they savemoney.(101)
所以如果他们带着这个包进来的话,他们可以省钱。

AMAKA OGIDI: They save not just money, butwe are sure of the quality they are going(102)
AMAKA OGIDI:他们不仅存钱,而且我们确信他们的质量

to use.(103)
使用。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Within a few days of thechurch service, the Baby Shower team sets(104)
威廉布朗汉姆:在教堂服务的几天内,婴儿淋浴团队设置

out to track down the women who tested positive,and begin their mission of gentle nagging.(105)
跟踪那些测试积极的女性,并开始他们的温和唠叨任务。

AMAKA OGIDI: Hello.(106)
AMAKA OGIDI:你好。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: They want to make sure momsvisit the clinic and start their medications.(107)
威廉布朗汉姆:他们想确保妈妈们访问诊所并开始他们的药物治疗。

AMAKA OGIDI: Why have you not gone to thefacility?(108)
AMAKA OGIDI:你为什么不去工厂?

You want to carry a baby infected?(109)
你想带孩子感染吗?

Oh, make sure you go.(110)
哦,一定要走。

How soon are you going?(111)
你要多久?

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: So you don't let them fallout of care.(112)
威廉布朗汉姆:所以你不要让他们失宠。

AMAKA OGIDI: That's the issue.(113)
AMAKA OGIDI:这是问题。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Several months ago, newmother Felicia Adah got the full Baby Shower(114)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:几个月前,新的母亲Felicia Adah得到了全面的婴儿沐浴

treatment.(115)
治疗。

Did you have any reason to believe that youwould be HIV-positive?(116)
你有什么理由相信你会感染艾滋病病毒吗?

FELICIA ADAH, Nigeria: No.(117)
费利西亚阿达,尼日利亚:不。

I no believe like that.(118)
我不相信那样。

But when the test come, I was crying.(119)
但是当测试来临时,我正在哭泣。

Two weeks, I did crying.(120)
两个星期,我哭了。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: But she started on treatment,stuck with it, and her baby was born virus-free.(121)
威廉布朗汉姆:但她开始接受治疗,坚持下去,而她的宝宝出生时没有病毒。

She says she wouldn't have gone for care onher own.(122)
她说她不会自己照顾自己。

And no matter how far away expectant motherslive, Baby Shower staff are relentless in(123)
不管孕妇多远生活,Baby Shower的工作人员都是无情的

finding them and keeping a close watch.(124)
找到他们并密切关注。

AMAKA OGIDI: You want to prevent.(125)
AMAKA OGIDI:你想防止。

If she misses her dosage and misses, thoseviruses comes out again with more aggression,(126)
如果她错过了她的剂量和错过,这些病毒再次出现,

and start multiplying and looking for thecells to destroy.(127)
并开始繁殖并寻找要破坏的细胞。

They could destroy your baby.(128)
他们可能会毁掉你的宝宝。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Mbachie Kough and his wife,Rose, are both HIV- positive.(129)
WILLIAM BRANGHAM:Mbachie Kough和他的妻子Rose,都是HIV阳性的。

And they're both in the Baby Shower program.(130)
他们都在婴儿淋浴计划。

And their new baby girl was born healthy andvirus-free.(131)
他们的新宝贝女儿出生健康且无病毒。

The program teaches parents how importantit is to stay on medication, so the babies(132)
该方案教导父母保持药物的重要性,所以婴儿

don't get the virus through breast-feeding.(133)
不要通过母乳喂养感染病毒。

MBACHIE KOUGH, Nigeria: The counselor toldus what to do.(134)
尼日利亚MBACHIE KOUGH:咨询员告诉我们该怎么做。

If we didn't follow the instruction, the babymight be likely to get the virus.(135)
如果我们没有按照说明操作,宝宝可能会感染病毒。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: The Baby Shower programis now in 115 churches in Nigeria.(136)
威廉布朗汉姆:婴儿淋浴计划现在在尼日利亚的115个教堂中。

Ninety percent of Nigerians attend a placeof worship at least once a week.(137)
百分之九十的尼日利亚人每周至少参加一次礼拜场所。

Nigeria is also half-Muslim, and they hopeto include mosques in the program soon.(138)
尼日利亚也是半穆斯林,他们希望很快将清真寺纳入该计划。

Father Emmanuel Dagi is the priest here.(139)
Emmanuel Dagi神父是这里的牧师。

REV.(140)
REV。

EMMANUEL DAGI, Priest: Our people are so veryreligious.(141)
EMMANUEL DAGI,牧师:我们的人民非常虔诚。

And, because of that, they attach much importanceto the priest also.(142)
因此,他们也非常重视牧师。

And if something comes through the priest,they accept it wholeheartedly.(143)
如果有什么事通过神父来到,他们会全心全意地接受它。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Initial results show thatBaby Shower is working.(144)
威廉布朗汉姆:初步结果显示婴儿淋浴正在工作。

A recent study funded by the U.S. NationalInstitutes of Health found that 92 percent(145)
最近由美国国立卫生研究院资助的一项研究发现,这一比例为92%

of pregnant women in Baby Shower got an HIVtest, while only 55 percent of women outside(146)
的婴儿淋浴中的孕妇进行了HIV检测,而只有55%的女性在户外

the program did.(147)
该计划的确如此。

JON COHEN: That's a remarkable achievement.(148)
JON COHEN:这是一个了不起的成就。

That's a great step forward.(149)
这是一个很大的进步。

The single biggest problem is, people don'tknow their status.(150)
最大的问题是,人们不知道他们的地位。

They don't know whether they're infected.(151)
他们不知道他们是否感染了病毒。

If you don't know you're infected, you'renot going to get treatment.(152)
如果你不知道自己被感染了,你不会得到治疗。

And if they can capture 92 percent of thewomen to learn their status, that gets into(153)
如果他们能够抓住92%的女性学习他们的身份,那么就会陷入困境

the zone of really driving transmission towardelimination.(154)
真正推动消除传播的区域。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: They're now looking at whetherthe program dramatically cuts mother-to-child(155)
威廉布朗汉姆:他们现在正在研究该计划是否大幅削减了母亲对孩子的影响

transmission.(156)
传输。

AMAKA OGIDI: Baby Shower, I just love it.(157)
AMAKA OGIDI:婴儿淋浴,我只是喜欢它。

I told somebody that it spreads like perfume.(158)
我告诉别人,它像香水一样传播。

You can spray it here.(159)
你可以在这里喷涂。

Somebody else somewhere, mmm, mmm, so whatis that?(160)
有人在某个地方,嗯,那是什么?

And comes looking for what it is.(161)
并期待它是什么。

The perfume is spreading.(162)
香水正在蔓延。

Baby Shower is producing some amazing results.(163)
婴儿沐浴产生了一些惊人的结果。

WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Six weeks after the babiesare born, families are called back to church(164)
威廉布朗汉姆:婴儿出生六周后,家属被召回教堂

for what's known as baby reception.(165)
为什么被称为婴儿接待。

There are follow-up tests and some lessonsreinforced.(166)
有后续测试和一些经验加强。

But, above all, they celebrate a healthy birthand what they hope will be a turning point(167)
但最重要的是,他们庆祝健康的出生,他们希望成为一个转折点

for their country, a generation born freeof HIV.(168)
为他们的国家,一个没有艾滋病毒的人。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm William Branghamin Benue state, Nigeria.(169)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,我是尼日利亚Benue州的William Brangham。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Tomorrow night, we turn tothe fight against HIV here in America, and(170)
JUDY WOODRUFF:明天晚上,我们转向在美国和艾滋病毒的斗争

go to Florida, home to four of the top 10cities in the U.S. for new HIV infections.(171)
去佛罗里达州,这是美国10个城市中4个新发现艾滋病病毒感染的地方。

Our partners at "Science" have all of JonCohen's reporting from this series in their(172)
我们在“科学”上的合作伙伴拥有Jon Cohen在本系列中的所有报道

current issue and online.(173)
目前的问题和在线。

You can find a link to that and all our broadcastpieces on our Web site.(174)
您可以在我们的网站上找到该链接以及我们所有的广播片段。

That's PBS.org/NewsHour.(175)
那是PBS.org/NewsHour。


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