美国经济学家获诺贝尔经济学奖
2017-10-12 16:33:00


American economist Richard Thaler has won the 2017 Nobel Prize for Economics.(1)
美国经济学家理查德·塞勒(Richard Thaler)荣获2017年诺贝尔经济学奖。

Thaler was recognized for his work as a behavioral economist.(2)
作为一名行为经济学家,塞勒的心血得到了认可。

That means he studies the reasons behind the economic decisions people make.(3)
他研究的是人们制定经济决策的原因。

Thaler received the prize partly for his research into why people often make irrational financial decisions.(4)
塞勒获得诺贝尔奖,部分归功于他对人们为何做出不理智的金融决策的研究。

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced the $1.1 million prize on Monday.(5)
周一,瑞典皇家科学院宣布了获得110万美元奖金的经济学奖得主。

Speaking of the prize money, Thaler told reporters in Chicago after the announcement, "I will spend it as irrationally as possible."(6)
说到奖金的话题时,塞勒对芝加哥的记者表示,“我会尽可能不理性地花掉这笔钱。”

The award committee said Thaler explored "the consequences of limited rationality, social preferences, and lack of self-control."(7)
诺贝尔奖项委员会表示,塞勒探究了“有限理性、社会偏好和缺乏自我控制的后果”。

It said the American economist’s work has shown how human qualities affect people’s individual decisions and the movements of financial markets.(8)
该委员会表示,塞勒的研究揭示出人类特性如何影响个人决策和金融市场动向。

Thaler developed the theory of "mental accounting." It describes how people create separate accounts in their minds to try to simplify financial decision-making.(9)
塞勒在经济学中发展出了“心理账户”的理论。该理论描述了人们如何通过在脑海中构建不同的账户来简化金融决策。

He described how this can lead to less rational financial decisions like saving for a vacation while paying high credit card interest.(10)
塞勒指出这会导致你做出不理性的金融决策,例如,在支付高额的信用卡利息的同时为度假存钱。

His research, Bloomberg noted, showed that people often choose short-term pleasures, which is why many people fail to plan and save for old age.(11)
彭博社指出,塞勒的研究揭示出人们会贪图一时之欢,这也是为何很多人没有计划、存钱养老。

The Reuters said Thaler’s research showed that such traits "as lack of self-control and fear of losing what you already have" can cause people to make bad short-term decisions.(12)
路透社称,塞勒的研究揭露出一些特点,如“缺乏自控能力和害怕失去”等会引导人们做出糟糕的短期决定。

One of those, Thaler noted, was keeping stock shares that have lost value or selling them too soon when they have gained value.(13)
塞勒指出,包括一直持有亏损的股份或在增值后迅速抛售股份。

Thaler helped develop the "nudge" theory.(14)
塞勒还发展出了一种“助推”理论。

It is the idea that small incentives can influence people to make good decisions.(15)
该理论指出,一些不起眼的鼓励措施会影响人们做出更理智的决定。

He said people should be permitted to make their own choices, but society "should actively try to guide individuals in the right direction."(16)
他说应该允许人们自己做决定,而社会“应积极引导人们走向正确的方向。”

Cass Sunstein and Thaler wrote about the idea in the 2008 book "Nudge."(17)
凯斯.桑斯坦和塞勒在2008年出版的《助推》中描述了该理论。

The theory has been used by political candidates as they work to influence voters and government officials seeking to make changes in society.(18)
政治候选人利用该理论影响选民,而政府官员利用该理论来改变社会。

Other areas also interested Thaler. He studied fairness.(19)
塞勒对其他领域也感兴趣。他还研究公平。

He found that people can accept increasing prices if the costs of many things are going up.(20)
他发现,如果许多东西的成本都在上涨,那么人们可以接受价格增长。

But he found that they strongly disapprove of companies that raise prices simply because of high demand for one product.(21)
但人们会强烈反对某公司因产品的需求上涨而抬高物价。

Bloomberg called Thaler’s Nobel Prize "a reward for 40 years of work spent studying human bias and temptation."(22)
彭博社称,塞勒获奖“是对其40年来研究人类偏好和诱惑的回报。”

Thaler is considered one of the first behavioral economists. His field, once criticized, has grown in popularity among economists over the last 10 years.(23)
塞勒被誉为行为经济学家的鼻祖之一。他研究的领域曾不被人看好,不过近十年来受到经济学家们的青睐。

The economist even briefly appeared in the 2010 movie, "The Big Short," about the global financial crisis.(24)
塞勒还在2010年的电影《大卖空》中露脸,该电影讲述的是全球金融危机。

Thaler is a professor of behavioral science and economics at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.(25)
塞勒是芝加哥大学布斯商学院行为科学和经济学的教授。

The economics prize was created in 1968 in memory of Alfred Nobel after his death.(26)
1968年,为了纪念过世的阿尔弗雷德·诺贝尔创立了诺贝尔经济学奖。

Since then, 79 individuals have received the prize. The first woman winner was ElinorOstrom in 2009.(27)
此后,有79人获得该奖项。2009年埃莉诺·奥斯特罗姆成为首位获此殊荣的女性。

American have received about half of the Nobel Prizes for economics.(28)
在诺贝尔经济学奖的得主中,有一半为美国人。

I’m Mario Ritter.(29)
马里奥·里特为您播报。


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