How these Massachusetts farmers are turning manure and food waste into power
2019-11-29 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: In the final episode of ourspecial series this week on food waste, we(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:在本周有关食物浪费的特别系列的最后一集中,我们

look at some innovative solutions being developedto deal with the growing problem of spoiled(2)
看一些正在开发的创新解决方案,以解决日益严重的变质问题

and surplus food in this country.(3)
和这个国家的剩余食物。

Special correspondent Allison Aubrey visiteda state where dairy farmers are using it to(4)
特别通讯员艾莉森·奥布里(Allison Aubrey)访问了一个奶农正在使用该州

power their farms and more.(5)
为他们的农场供电等等。

ALLISON AUBREY: It's burger night at Barstow'sDairy and Bakery at Longview Farm in Hadley,(6)
ALLISON AUBREY:今天是在哈德利Longview农场的Barstow's乳品店和面包店的汉堡之夜,

Massachusetts, and the Pioneer Valley StringBand has drawn a crowd.(7)
马萨诸塞州和先锋谷弦乐队吸引了一群人。

As advertised, the burgers are born and raisedhere.(8)
如广告所示,汉堡在这里出生和饲养。

But the cows on this farm produce more thanjust meat.(9)
但是,这个农场的母牛不仅生产肉,而且还生产更多的肉。

DENISE BARSTOW, Barstow's Longview Farm: Ourcows are producing about a hundred pounds(10)
丹尼斯·巴斯托(DENISE BARSTOW),巴斯托的朗维尤农场(Longview Farm):我们的奶牛约生产一百磅

of cow manure per cow per day, and we're treatingit through this system and getting electricity,(11)
每天每头牛的粪便数量,我们正在通过该系统对其进行处理并获得电力,

renewable energy that's coming right herefrom the farm.(12)
来自农场的可再生能源。

ALLISON AUBREY: The system that seventh-generationfarmer Denise Barstow is talking about is(13)
ALLISON AUBREY:第七代农民Denise Barstow谈论的系统是

an anaerobic digester.(14)
厌氧消化池。

Those green towers are part of it.(15)
这些绿色的塔是其中的一部分。

She's one of a handful of dairy farmers inMassachusetts using this technology.(16)
她是马萨诸塞州使用该技术的少数奶农之一。

Just down the road, dairy farmer Peter Melnikis using it, too.(17)
在路上,奶农彼得·梅尔尼克(Peter Melnik)也在使用它。

STEVEN MELNIK, Bar-Way Farm: We are takingfood waste from all over the greater Boston(18)
斯蒂芬·梅尔尼克(Steven MELNIK),巴尔韦农场(Bar-Way Farm):我们正在从大波士顿各地获取食物垃圾

area and our very own cow manure.(19)
地区和我们自己的牛粪。

We mix them together in the digester vesseland make electricity.(20)
我们将它们在蒸煮器中混合在一起并发电。

ALLISON AUBREY: This land has been in Melnik'sfamily for four generations.(21)
ALLISON AUBREY:这片土地已经存在于Melnik的家族中已有四代了。

But times are tough for dairy farmers, soMelnik has diversified.(22)
但是,对于奶农来说,时光艰难,因此梅尔尼克(Melnik)已经多元化。

His land is now part farm, and part renewableenergy plant.(23)
他的土地现在既是农场,又是可再生能源厂。

The process starts here.(24)
该过程从这里开始。

STEVEN MELNIK: This is the manure pit, aswe like to call it.(25)
史蒂文·梅尔尼克(STEVEN MELNIK):这就是我们所称的粪坑。

ALLISON AUBREY: But he needs more than manure.(26)
ALLISON AUBREY:但他不仅需要肥料。

The trick to making this waste-to-energy systemprofitable is volume, and Melnik has found(27)
梅尔尼克发现,使这种垃圾发电系统盈利的诀窍是数量

an abundant source.(28)
丰富的资源

Millions of pounds each year of surplus andspoiled food that would otherwise be destined(29)
每年有数百万英镑的剩余食物和变质的食物

for a landfill now arrives at his farm intrucks like this.(30)
因为现在有这样的卡车将垃圾填埋场运到他的农场。

The food scraps are ground up into a liquidslurry that gets pumped into this pit.(31)
将食物残渣磨碎成液体浆液,然后将其泵入该坑中。

The more you add, the more electricity youcan make.(32)
添加的越多,您可以制造的电力就越多。

The waste comes from all over.(33)
废物来自四面八方。

There's unsold produce from whole foods, scrapsand whey from a Cabot butter plant, and spent(34)
有来自未加工食品的全部食品,来自卡博特黄油厂的残渣和乳清,并用于

grain from a local brewery.(35)
来自当地啤酒厂的谷物。

STEVEN MELNIK: Inside the digester, it's aboutalmost a million gallon tank.(36)
史蒂文·梅尔尼克(STEVEN MELNIK):在蒸煮器内部,它的储罐容量约为一百万加仑。

It's heated to 105 degrees.(37)
它被加热到105度。

And inside there are tiny microbes.(38)
里面有微小的微生物。

ALLISON AUBREY: Microbes from these cow'sdigestive tracks and the rotting food produce(39)
ALLISON AUBREY:这些牛的消化道和腐烂的食物中产生的微生物

methane, which is usually released into theatmosphere, playing a role in climate change.(40)
甲烷通常会释放到大气中,在气候变化中起作用。

But, here, when the gas is captured, it'sstored in these big black bubbles, and Melnik(41)
但是,在这里,当气体被捕获时,被存储在这些大黑气泡中,而梅尔尼克

can actually generate power from it.(42)
可以真正从中发电。

STEVEN MELNIK: We produce a megawatt of electricityevery hour.(43)
STEVEN MELNIK:我们每小时产生一兆瓦的电力。

ALLISON AUBREY: How much is that?(44)
ALLISON AUBREY:多少钱?

STEVEN MELNIK: A megawatt is enough to powerthe digester and the dairy farm, our houses(45)
史蒂文·梅尔尼克(STEVEN MELNIK):一兆瓦足以为沼气池和奶牛场,我们的房屋供电

and outbuildings out here, and we still have90 percent of our electricity left over to(46)
和这里的附属建筑,我们仍有90%的电力剩余

be put back on the grid.(47)
重新放到网格上。

ALLISON AUBREY: And the other 90 percent?(48)
ALLISON AUBREY:另外90%?

It powers some of the businesses that sendtheir food waste to the digesters.(49)
它为一些将食物垃圾发送到蒸煮器的企业提供了动力。

It also powers two local towns.(50)
它还为两个地方城镇供电。

They're able to purchase the electricity ata 10 percent to 15 percent discount.(51)
他们能够以10%到15%的折扣购买电力。

So, what is it that you get from this?(52)
那么,您从中得到什么呢?

How does this help your bottom line?(53)
这对您的底线有何帮助?

STEVEN MELNIK: We are getting about $100,000a year in savings.(54)
STEVEN MELNIK:我们每年可节省约100,000美元。

ALLISON AUBREY: The digesters are built andrun by a company called Vanguard Renewables.(55)
ALLISON AUBREY:沼气池由一家名为Vanguard Renewables的公司建造和运营。

The company pays farmers a fee for the useof their land and gives them free electricity(56)
该公司向农民支付使用土地的费用,并给他们免费的电力

to power their farms and houses.(57)
为他们的农场和房屋供电。

In addition to the economic boost, Melniksays he likes the environmental benefits.(58)
梅尔尼克说,除了经济增长外,他还喜欢环境效益。

STEVEN MELNIK: I don't need an app or an environmentalcalculator to tell me that this thing just(59)
STEVEN MELNIK:我不需要应用程序或环境计算器就可以告诉我这件事只是

makes sense.(60)
说得通。

Having such a closed-loop system, it's reallybeen neat to see the connection between all(61)
有了这样一个闭环系统,看到所有人之间的联系真的很整洁

the food companies.(62)
食品公司。

ALLISON AUBREY: One player in this loop isWhole Foods.(63)
ALLISON AUBREY:此循环中的一个参与者是Whole Foods。

Seventeen of their stores participate.(64)
他们的十七家商店参加了。

They ship 50 to 100 tons of food waste everyweek to their digesters.(65)
他们每周将50至100吨的餐厨垃圾运往其消化池。

At the stores, they grind up food they can'tsell or donate, and then truck it to Melnik's(66)
在商店,他们碾碎了无法出售或捐赠的食物,然后将其运到Melnik's

farm.(67)
农场。

Whole Foods' Karen Franczyk explains.(68)
Whole Foods的Karen Franczyk解释道。

KAREN FRANCZYK, Whole Foods: Anything thatends up going to landfill or incineration(69)
凯伦·弗朗西克(KAREN FRANCZYK),全食:所有最终要填埋或焚化的东西

costs us more money.(70)
花了我们更多的钱。

That is the most expensive way to get ridof waste in our stores.(71)
这是摆脱我们商店中浪费的最昂贵方法。

ALLISON AUBREY: So, sending the waste to theanaerobic digester is cheaper, and can help(72)
ALLISON AUBREY:因此,将废物发送到厌氧消化池更便宜,并且可以帮助

reduce the ecological footprint.(73)
减少生态足迹。

Up to 10 percent of all greenhouse gas emissionsare linked to food waste.(74)
所有温室气体排放中多达10%与食物垃圾有关。

And in 2014, Massachusetts passed a law toban food companies from sending their waste(75)
2014年,马萨诸塞州通过了一项法律,禁止食品公司运送废物

to landfills.(76)
填埋场。

It applies to all businesses that generateover a ton of food waste a week.(77)
它适用于每周产生大量食物垃圾的所有企业。

So far, four other states in the U.S. havepassed similar bans.(78)
到目前为止,美国其他四个州也通过了类似的禁令。

JOHN MAJERCAK, President, Center for EcoTechnology:Each part of the food waste stream.(79)
生态技术中心总裁JOHN MAJERCAK:食物垃圾流的每个部分。

ALLISON AUBREY: John Majercak is presidentof the Center for EcoTechnology, a nonprofit(80)
ALLISON AUBREY:John Majercak是非营利组织EcoTechnology中心的总裁

that helps businesses in Massachusetts saveenergy and reduce waste.(81)
帮助马萨诸塞州的企业节省能源并减少浪费。

JOHN MAJERCAK: To transport food waste superlong distances is very expensive and also(82)
JOHN MAJERCAK:超长距离运送食物垃圾非常昂贵,而且

wasteful.(83)
浪费。

So the idea was to try and put dots on a mapall across the state close to where the waste(84)
因此,想法是尝试在整个州附近,靠近废物的地方将点放在地图上

is produced, so that it could be used to produceenergy.(85)
被生产出来,因此可以用来生产能源。

And the state did this by incentivizing thedevelopment of these digesters.(86)
国家通过激励这些消化池的发展来做到这一点。

ALLISON AUBREY: Those dots are now sprinkledacross the state, and incentives came in the(87)
艾里森·奥布里:这些点现在遍布全州,并且在

form of grants given to the companies to buildthe digesters.(88)
给予公司建造沼气池的补助形式。

John Hanselman is Vanguard's CEO.(89)
John Hanselman是Vanguard的首席执行官。

He says he is inspired by what has happenedin Europe, where there are over 17,000 digesters(90)
他说,他受到欧洲发生的事情的启发,那里有17,000多个沼气池

and government policies to promote renewableenergy.(91)
以及政府促进可再生能源的政策。

JOHN HANSELMAN, CEO, Vanguard Renewables:So we saw what was happening in Europe, where(92)
Vanguard Renewables首席执行官JOHN HANSELMAN:所以我们看到了欧洲发生的事情

anaerobic digestion is extremely widespread.(93)
厌氧消化极为普遍。

Across the United States, we don't have thatincentive program.(94)
在整个美国,我们没有那种激励计划。

We don't have the federal energy policy orany federal benefits for anaerobic digestion.(95)
我们没有联邦能源政策或厌氧消化的任何联邦福利。

I think we are at the cusp.(96)
我认为我们正处于风口浪尖。

We are at the early days.(97)
我们还处于初期。

We have finally got the economics to work.(98)
我们终于使经济学发挥作用。

ALLISON AUBREY: Hanselman says, after sixyears in the making, he expects to make a(99)
ALLISON AUBREY:Hanselman说,在制作了六年之后,他希望制作一个

profit this year, and he's optimistic aboutthe growth.(100)
今年盈利,他对增长感到乐观。

This waste-to-energy approach is new in theU.S., and the extent to which it can take(101)
这种废物转化为能源的方法在美国是新的,并且可以在多大程度上采用

off may depend on how much states or the federalgovernment are willing to incentivize it.(102)
偏离可能取决于有多少州或联邦政府愿意对其进行激励。

In Massachusetts, it took two new laws, afood waste ban, and a renewable energy law,(103)
在马萨诸塞州,制定了两项新法律:一项食品垃圾禁令和一项可再生能源法,

plus grants to make it happen.(104)
再加上补助金,以实现这一目标。

Farmer Denise Barstow is glad it's all workedout.(105)
农夫丹妮丝·巴斯托很高兴一切都解决了。

DENISE BARSTOW: You can't just work reallyhard anymore and make it in the dairy industry.(106)
丹妮丝·巴斯托(DENISE BARSTOW):您不能再再努力工作了,并且在乳制品行业做到这一点。

You have to work smarter, not just harder.(107)
您必须更聪明地工作,而不仅仅是努力。

And part of that is diversifying in a waythat is better for the land, better for the(108)
而其中一部分是以对土地更有利,对土地更有利的方式实现多样化

animals and better for the next generation.(109)
动物和下一代更好。

ALLISON AUBREY: For the "PBS NewsHour," I'mAllison Aubrey of NPR News in Hadley, Massachusetts.(110)
ALLISON AUBREY:对于“ PBS NewsHour”,我是马萨诸塞州哈德利市NPR新闻的Allison Aubrey。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And you can see all of ourstories on the topic of food waste on our(111)
JUDY WOODRUFF:您可以在我们的网站上看到我们所有有关食物浪费的故事

home page.(112)
主页。

That's PBS.org/NewsHour.(113)
那是PBS.org/NewsHour。


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