How giant African rats are helping uncover deadly land mines in Cambodia
2019-09-10 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: They are lethal legacies ofwar.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:他们是战争的致命遗产。

Land mines present a constant hidden threat.(2)
地雷呈现出持续不断的威胁。

Special correspondent Fred de Sam Lazaro reportsfrom Cambodia, where the danger is part of(3)
特别记者弗雷德德萨姆拉扎罗在柬埔寨报道,危险是其中的一部分

daily life.(4)
日常生活。

But an unlikely battalion of animals is makinga difference.(5)
但是一个不太可能的动物营正在发挥作用。

This is part of Fred's series Agents for Change.(6)
这是Fred的系列变革代理商的一部分。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Let's face it, rodentsrarely trigger warm fuzzy feelings in most(7)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:让我们面对现实,啮齿动物在大多数情况下很少引发温暖的模糊感受

people.(8)
人。

But these African giant pouched rats, beinggently awoken from their cages, are called(9)
但是,这些非洲巨型小袋鼠被轻轻地从他们的笼子里唤醒了

hero rats by their handlers.(10)
英雄老鼠由他们的处理者。

They have names like Harry Potter, Godiva,and Frederick -- no relation.(11)
他们有像哈利波特,戈迪瓦和弗雷德里克这样的名字 - 没有关系。

After getting sunscreened up, this rat packof 11 animals is headed out before dawn to(12)
在进行了阳光照射后,这只11只动物的大鼠将在黎明前前往

a former battlefield in rural Cambodia.(13)
柬埔寨农村的前战场。

Their task?(14)
他们的任务?

Sniff out land mines.(15)
嗅出地雷。

MARK SHUKURU, Head Rat Trainer, APOPO: Everyonewas surprised, even me, when I heard that(16)
APOPO老鼠训练师MARK SHUKURU:当我听到这个消息时,每个人都很惊讶,甚至是我

the rats also were detecting land mines.(17)
老鼠也在探测地雷。

It was like something unbelievable to me.(18)
这对我来说简直令人难以置信。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Mark Shukuru is head rattrainer in Cambodia for the Belgian non-profit(19)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:Mark Shukuru是柬埔寨比利时非盈利组织的老鼠训练师

APOPO.(20)
APOPO。

He is from Tanzania, where this species isalso native, and he learned early that they(21)
他来自坦桑尼亚,这个物种也是土生土长的,他很早就知道了

have some of the most sensitive noses in theanimal kingdom.(22)
在动物王国里有一些最敏感的鼻子。

Each comes out of a rigorous program in Tanzaniathat trains them to distinguish explosives(23)
每个都来自坦桑尼亚的严格计划,培训他们区分爆炸物

from other scents.(24)
来自其他香水。

Each time they sniff out TNT buried in thistest field, a trainer uses a clicker to make(25)
每当他们嗅出埋在这个测试区域的TNT时,训练师就会使用一个咔哒声来制作

a distinct sound, and they get a treat.(26)
一种独特的声音,他们得到了一个享受。

MARK SHUKURU: So, TNT smell, clicker, food.(27)
MARK SHUKURU:TNT气味,咔哒声,食物。

TNT smell, clicker, food.(28)
TNT气味,咔哒声,食物。

TNT smell, clicker, food.(29)
TNT气味,咔哒声,食物。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: The drill can take upto 12 months before handlers are confident(30)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:在处理者有信心之前,钻头可能需要长达12个月的时间

that, when the animal scratches in place,an explosive is buried below.(31)
当动物划伤到位时,炸药会埋在下面。

MARK SHUKURU: We have never missed anythingwith the rats.(32)
MARK SHUKURU:老鼠们从来没有错过任何东西。

So they're doing good.(33)
所以他们做得很好。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Rats have a number ofadvantages compared to human de-miners, who(34)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:与人类排雷者相比,老鼠具有许多优势

must rely on metal detectors.(35)
必须依靠金属探测器。

They detect a lot of scrap metal.(36)
他们发现了很多废金属。

These are, after all, old battlefields.(37)
毕竟,这些都是旧战场。

They are litter, but they don't always containexplosives, whereas these guys are trained(38)
它们是垃圾,但它们并不总是含有爆炸物,而这些人则受过训练

to sniff out TNT, which is the explosive inmost mines.(39)
嗅出TNT,这是大多数矿山的爆炸物。

Since 2016, APOPO's hero rats have found roughly500 anti-personnel mines and more than 350(40)
自2016年以来,APOPO的英雄老鼠已经发现大约500个杀伤人员地雷和超过350个

unexploded bombs in Cambodia.(41)
柬埔寨未爆炸的炸弹。

They're the second animal to be deployed inmine clearance.(42)
他们是排雷部署的第二只动物。

Dogs were first.(43)
狗是第一个。

Animals can work much faster than humans,although, when the land is densely mined,(44)
动物可以比人类更快地工作,但是当土地被密集开采时,

metal detectors are considered more efficient.(45)
金属探测器被认为更有效。

Thuch Ly who leads the government's de-miningeffort, says there's plenty of work to go(46)
领导政府扫雷工作的林瑞说,还有很多工作要做

around.(47)
周围。

The ministry has exhaustive maps of areasit calls contaminated.(48)
该部门详尽地描述了它所称的污染区域。

THUCH LY, Cambodian Mine Action and VictimAssistance Authority: We come out with the(49)
THUCH LY,柬埔寨排雷行动和受害者援助局:我们出来了

numbers that are around four to six millionanti-personnel land mines in this country,(50)
这个国家大约有四百万到六百万个杀伤地雷的数字,

so we still have a long way to go.(51)
所以我们还有很长的路要走。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: That translates to a lotof contaminated land in this largely rural(52)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:这在很大程度上是农村地区的大量污染土地

agrarian country, an economic and existentialthreat.(53)
农业国家,经济和存在的威胁。

THUCH LY: We have more than 26,000 peoplekilled and injured over the years; 30 percent(54)
谢丽尔:多年来,我们有超过26,000人死伤; 30%

of them are women and children.(55)
他们是妇女和儿童。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: It's the legacy of threedecades of conflict that ended in the late(56)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:这是三十年冲突的遗产,最终在最后结束

'90s.(57)
20世纪90年代。

In Cambodia's west, land mines were buriedby the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime and by(58)
在柬埔寨的西部,地雷被种族灭绝的红色高棉政权埋葬

the Vietnamese army that drove them from power,alongside the new Cambodian army.(59)
越南军队与新的柬埔寨军队一起驱逐他们的权力。

In the east, near Vietnam, lie millions oftons of unexploded American bombs dropped(60)
在越南附近的东部,数百万吨未爆炸的美国炸弹落下

during the war.(61)
在战争期间。

AKI RA, Founder, Cambodia Landmine Museum:We hold like this.(62)
AKI RA,柬埔寨地产博物馆创始人:我们这样举办。

Be careful.(63)
小心。

Then press on top here.(64)
然后按此处顶部。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: This may be the only countrywith a land mine museum.(65)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:这可能是唯一一个拥有地雷博物馆的国家。

It was started by Aki Ra, who was conscriptedas a child to fight for the Khmer Rouge.(66)
它是由Aki Ra开始的,他被征召为孩子为红色高棉而战。

AKI RA: We cut the wire.(67)
AKI RA:我们切断了电线。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: He laid mines himself,and has spent much of his adult life trying(68)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:他自己埋设了地雷,并且在成年后的大部分时间里都在努力

to remove them.(69)
删除它们。

He disarmed many of the devices on displayhere, and says his goal is to raise awareness(70)
他解除了这里展出的许多设备的武装,并表示他的目标是提高认识

of what mines can do.(71)
什么地雷可以做。

AKI RA (through translator): The childrenduring my time all went through it, but it(72)
AKI RA(通过翻译):在我这个时代的孩子们都经历过它,但它

seems like the young, the children growingup during this generation, they're not aware(73)
看起来像年轻人,孩子们在这一代人中长大,他们并不知道

of the danger or the casualties of land minesthat still occur today in Cambodia.(74)
今天在柬埔寨仍然发生的地雷的危险或伤亡。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Tens of thousands of Cambodianslive in close proximity to the dormant killers.(75)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:成千上万的柬埔寨人居住在休眠杀手附近。

This school was just steps from the mine fieldwe visited with the APOPO rats.(76)
这所学校距离我们与APOPO老鼠一起参观的矿区只有几步之遥。

REBECCA LETVIN, Cambodia Country Director,Mines Advisory Group: People are forced to(77)
REBECCA LETVIN,柬埔寨矿业咨询小组国家主任:人们被迫

enter these contaminated areas quite simplybecause they don't have a choice, because(78)
很简单地进入这些污染区域是因为他们没有选择权,因为

their livelihoods depend on it.(79)
他们的生计取决于它。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Rebecca Letvin works withthe British Mines Advisory Group, one of several(80)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:Rebecca Letvin与英国矿业咨询集团合作,该集团是其中之一

aid agencies working in Cambodia; 27 yearsinto the collective effort, they have freed(81)
在柬埔寨工作的援助机构;他们集体努力了27年,他们已经获得了自由

up some 18,000 acres.(82)
大约18,000英亩。

That's less than a 10th of the terrain consideredcontaminated.(83)
这不到被认为污染的地形的十分之一。

REBECCA LETVIN: It's important that we don'tforget what happened here in Cambodia, and(84)
REBECCA LETVIN:重要的是我们不要忘记柬埔寨发生的事情

we don't forget that the country itself isstill very heavily contaminated.(85)
我们不要忘记,该国本身仍然受到严重污染。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: This year's toll so far,11 killed and 51 injured.(86)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:到目前为止,今年造成11人死亡,51人受伤。

At this regional prosthesis hospital, a steadystream of victims arrives each day to be fitted(87)
在这个区域假肢医院,每天都有稳定的受害者到达

or refitted with artificial limbs.(88)
或改装假肢。

SNA HIM, Land Mine Victim (through translator):The old one was getting really tight, especially(89)
SNA HIM,Land Mine Victim(通过翻译):旧版本变得非常紧张,特别是

around my thigh.(90)
在我的大腿周围。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Thirty-nine-year-old SnaHim stepped on a land mine in 2002.(91)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:三十九岁的Sna Him在2002年踩到了一块地雷。

Like many patients here, he's a small farmer,growing rubber and cashew nuts with his wife(92)
像这里的许多病人一样,他是一个小农,和他的妻子种植橡胶和腰果

and three children.(93)
和三个孩子。

SNA HIM (through translator): I am alwaysvery careful when I walk in the fields, because(94)
SNA HIM(通过翻译):当我走进田野时,我总是非常小心,因为

I am worried that it could happen to my otherleg.(95)
我担心这可能发生在我的另一条腿上。

I feel very upset that I lost a part of mybody, because it prevents me from doing other(96)
我感到非常沮丧,因为它阻止了我做其他事情

activities that normal people are able todo.(97)
普通人能够做的活动。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Meanwhile, the variousde-mining teams continue to inch forward with(98)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:同时,各种扫雷队继续向前迈进

the tedious, dangerous work.(99)
繁琐而危险的工作。

There's little evidence anymore of the hostilitythat drove the shattering conflict.(100)
几乎没有任何证据证明这种冲击破坏了冲突。

Old combatants have moved on over time, but,Minister Thuch laments, so has the world's(101)
随着时间的推移,老战士们不断前进,但是,图赫部长感叹,世界也是如此

attention.(102)
注意。

THUCH LY: I think there's a moral obligationfor everybody involved in war in the past.(103)
谢谢LY:我认为过去参与战争的每个人都有道德义务。

I think that it was the Cold War and thensmall nations like Cambodia been victims of(104)
我认为这是冷战,然后像柬埔寨这样的小国成了冷战

this.(105)
这个。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: APOPO plans to bring insome 40 more rats to expand the force and(106)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:APOPO计划引进大约40只老鼠来扩大力量

replace retirees.(107)
取代退休人员。

Each animal works about eight years, and thenlives out the rest of its days alongside fellow(108)
每只动物的工作时间大约为8年,然后与其他人共同度过余生

heroes, all working toward the day when theycan broadcast to the world that Cambodia has(109)
英雄们,他们都朝着柬埔寨向世界广播的那一天工作

destroyed the last unexploded bomb.(110)
摧毁了最后一枚未爆炸的炸弹。

Its big task is to convince enough donorsto help with the cause.(111)
它的重要任务是说服足够的捐助者帮助解决问题。

For the "PBS NewsHour," this is Fred de SamLazaro near Battambang, Cambodia.(112)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,这是柬埔寨马德望附近的Fred de Sam Lazaro。


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