Have a headache? You are not alone.
2013-06-11 00:30:54

From VOA Learning English, this is Science in the News. I'm Steve Ember. Today Barbara Klein and I tell about headaches, the pain that strikes almost everyone at some time.(1)
从美国之音英语学习,这是科技新闻。我是史帝文安博。今天我和芭芭拉 · 克莱因告诉头痛、 罢工几乎每个人都在一段时间的痛苦。

Have you had a headache recently? If your answer is yes, you are like many millions of people worldwide who experience pain in the head.(2)

The pain can be temporary, mild and cured by a simple painkiller like aspirin. Or, it can be severe.(3)
疼痛可以临时、 温和和固化的简单的止痛药,像阿司匹林。或者,它可以是严重。

The National Headache Foundation says more than 45 million people in the United States suffer chronic headaches. Such a headache causes severe pain that goes away but returns later.(4)
全国头痛基金会表示: 在美国超过 4500 万人患慢性头痛。这种头痛会导致剧烈的疼痛就会消失,但以后返回。

Some headaches may prove difficult and require time to treat. But many experts today are working toward cures or major help for chronic headaches.(5)

The U.S. Headache Consortium is a group with seven member organizations. They are working to improve treatment of one kind of headache -- the migraine.(6)

Some people experience this kind of pain as often as two weeks every month. The National Headache Foundation says about 70 percent of migraine sufferers are women.(7)
有些人常常作为两个星期每月经历这种痛苦。全国头痛基金会说的偏头痛患者约 70%是妇女。

Some people describe the pain as throbbing, causing pressure in the head. Others compare it to someone driving a sharp object into the head.(8)

Migraine headaches cause Americans to miss at least 150 million workdays each year. A migraine can be mild. But it also can be so severe that a person cannot live a normal life.(9)
偏头痛导致错过工作日每年至少 1 亿 5000 万的美国人。偏头痛可能是轻微的。但它也可以是如此严重一个人不能过正常的生活。

One migraine sufferer is Curtis Croley of Ellicott City in Maryland. He had head pain as a child. Mr. Croley says he does not know what kind of headaches they were.(10)
一偏头痛患者是柯蒂斯 · 埃利科特城在马里兰州的 Croley。他作为一个孩子有头部疼痛。Croley 先生说,他并不知道他们是什么样的头痛。

But when he suffered severe headaches as an adult, doctors identified the problem as migraine.(11)

Today, Mr. Croley produces and directs films and videos. He says months can pass without a headache. But then he will have three migraines within a month.(12)
今天,先生 Croley 产生,并指示影片和录像。他说: 几个月可以传递无头痛。但是,然后他会在一个月内有三个偏头痛。

If he takes the medicine his doctor ordered early in his headache, it controls the pain in his head. If not, the pain becomes extremely bad.(13)

Sometimes he has had to be treated with a combination of drugs in a hospital.(14)

Some people take medicine every day to prevent or ease migraine headaches. Others use medicine to control pain already developed.(15)

Doctors treating migraine sufferers often order medicines from a group of drugs known as triptans.(16)
医生治疗偏头痛患者经常订购药物从组的药物,称为 triptans。

Most migraines react at least partly to existing medicine. And most people can use existing medicine without experiencing bad effects.(17)

Doctors sometimes use caffeine to treat migraine headaches. Interestingly, caffeine can also cause some migraines.(18)

Medical experts have long recognized the work of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.(19)

The Mayo Clinic says several foods are suspected of being “triggers” that start migraines. They include cheese and alcoholic drinks.(20)

Food additives like salt and monosodium glutamate also may be triggers.(21)
盐、 味精等食品添加剂也可能是触发器。

The Mayo Clinic tells patients to avoid strong smells that have seemingly started migraines in the past. Some people react badly to products like perfume, even if they have a pleasant smell.(22)

The clinic's experts say aerobic exercise can help migraine sufferers. Aerobic exercise increases a person's heart rate. It can include walking, swimming or riding a bicycle.(23)
诊所的专家说,有氧运动可以帮助偏头痛患者。有氧运动增加一个人的心率。它可以包括步行、 游泳或骑自行车。

But a sudden start to hard exercise can cause headaches. So it is a good idea to perform some mild exercises before beginning activities that require more energy.(24)

The experts advise that people should plan to exercise, eat and sleep at the same times each day.(25)
专家们建议人们应计划行使、 吃和睡在同一时间的每一天。

The Mayo Clinic also has advice for women who suffer from migraines. The female body makes estrogen. Drugs like birth control pills contain a version of this chemical.(26)

Such drugs may produce headaches or cause them to worsen, the clinic warns. But they can also cause an easing of headache pain.(27)

The same is true for estrogen replacement drugs for women. Doctors sometimes order estrogen replacement for women who are no longer able to have children.(28)

The Mayo Clinic says there are alternative, or nontraditional, ways to treat migraine. Among them is acupuncture, in which thin needles are placed below the skin at defined areas.(29)

The clinic says another method, biofeedback, is especially effective for migraine.(30)

In biofeedback, patients use special equipment to learn how to observe and control physical reactions linked to stress.(31)

Some people get help from massage, systematic rubbing of the body. Others use herbs, minerals or vitamins.(32)
有些人从按摩,有系统地摩擦身体的获取帮助。其他人使用草药、 矿物或维生素。

More people suffer tension headaches than migraines. But most tension headaches are not as powerful.(33)

Events that start tension headaches may include emotional pressure and the deeper than normal sadness called depression.(34)

Other tension headaches can start from something as simple as feeling tired. Common changes in atmospheric conditions also can be responsible.(35)

The Mayo Clinic says you may feel a tension headache as tightness in the skin around your eyes. Or, you may feel pressure around your head.(36)

Episodic tension headaches strike from time to time. Chronic tension headaches happen more often. A tension headache can last from a half hour to a whole week.(37)

The Mayo Clinic says the pain may come very early in the day. Other signs can include pain in the neck or the lower part of the head.(38)

Scientists are not sure what causes tension headaches. For years, researchers blamed muscle tension from tightening in the face, neck and the skin on top of the head.(39)
科学家们不确定是什么导致紧张性头痛。多年来,研究人员归咎于从在脸上、 脖子和头上的皮肤收紧肌肉紧张。

They believed emotional tension caused these movements. But that belief has been disputed.(40)

The International Headache Society began organizing a system for identifying differing forms of headaches in 1985. The society says there is no evidence that tense muscles are the only cause of pain.(41)
国际头痛协会开始组织系统在 1985 年确定不同形式的头痛。该协会称没有任何证据表明肌肉紧张是痛苦的唯一原因。

So it suggests that tension headaches be called tension-type headaches.(42)

Some scientists now believe that tension headaches may result from changes among brain chemicals such as serotonin. These changes may start sending pain messages to the brain.(43)
一些科学家现在认为紧张性头痛可能会导致从大脑化学物质如 5-羟色胺之间变化。这些更改可能会开始将痛苦消息发送到大脑。

The changes may interfere with brain activity that suppresses pain.(44)

Whatever the cause of the headache, people do not enjoy the experience. Treatment can be as simple as aspirin or other painkillers. But if your pain is too severe, you will need a doctor's advice.(45)

A website called familydoctor.org provides information from the American Academy of Family Physicians. It offers suggestions to ease or end a tension headache.(46)
一个叫 familydoctor.org 的网站提供了从美国家庭医师学会信息。它提供建议,以纾缓或结束紧张性头痛。

For example, it says putting heat or ice on your head or neck can help. So can standing under hot water while you are getting washed in the shower. The group also advises exercising often.(47)

Another idea is taking a holiday from work. But you had better ask your employer first.(48)

Ask anyone with a cluster headache, and they will tell you that the pain is terrible. The Cleveland Clinic in Ohio says the cluster headache can be many times more intense than a migraine.(49)

Cluster headaches usually strike young people. Smokers and people who drink alcohol often get such headaches. Men are about six times more likely than women to have them.(50)

The Cleveland Clinic says this is especially true of younger men. Doctors say cluster headaches often strike during changes of season.(51)

Cluster headache patients describe the pain as burning. The pain is almost always felt on one side of the face. It can last for up to 90 minutes. Then it stops.(52)
丛集性头痛患者描述作为燃烧的痛苦。痛苦几乎总是感觉在一侧的脸上。它可长达 90 分钟的时间。然后它将停止。

But it often starts again later the same day. Eighty to 90 percent of cluster headache patients have pain over a number of days to a whole year.(53)
但它往往开始以后再次在同一天。80 至 90%的丛集性头痛患者有疼痛过去数天到了整整一年。

Pain-free periods separate these periods.(54)

The Cleveland Clinic says the cause of cluster headaches is in a brain area known as a trigeminal-autonomic reflex pathway.(55)

When the nerve is made active, it starts pain linked to cluster headaches. The nerve starts a process that makes one eye watery and red.(56)

Studies have shown that activation of the trigeminal nerve may come from a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.(57)

The Cleveland Clinic says injections of the drug sumatriptan can help. Many other drugs could be used. For example, doctors say breathing oxygen also can help.(58)

Thankfully, modern medicine has ways to treat almost all of our headaches.(59)

This program was written by Jerilyn Watson. Our producer was June Simms. For Barbara Klein, I'm ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­Steve Ember.(60)
此程序是写的 Jerilyn 华生。我们的制作人 6 月西姆斯。芭芭拉 · 克莱因我 ­­­Steve 余烬。

Visit us at learningenglish.voanews.com, where you can find transcripts and MP3s of our reports. Join us again next week for more news about science on the Voice of America.(61)
访问我们 learningenglish.voanews.com,你可以在哪里找到成绩单和 mp3 我们的报告。加入我们下周再科学更多新闻关于美国的声音。

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