What's behind extreme air pollution in India
2019-11-07 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: There is a toxic brew in muchof the air over India, sparked by everything(1)
朱迪·伍德鲁夫(JUDY WOODRUFF):印度的大部分空气中都有一种有毒的酿造物,其原因在于

from farmers burning their fields to industrialpollution.(2)
从烧田的农民到工业污染。

Special correspondent Fred de Sam Lazaro examinedthis problem.(3)
特别记者弗雷德·德·萨姆·拉萨罗(Fred de Sam Lazaro)检查了这个问题。

And now he has this update.(4)
现在,他有了此更新。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Smoke billows from thefields of Northern India, as farmers burn(5)
弗雷德·德·萨姆·拉萨罗(FRED DE SAM LAZARO):随着农民的燃烧,印度北部田野中的浓烟滚滚

remnants of their crops after harvest.(6)
收成后农作物的残留物。

They say it's the easiest and quickest wayto get their fields ready for the next planting.(7)
他们说这是为下一次种植做好准备的最简单,最快的方法。

But what is convenient for the farmers iswreaking havoc in nearby cities.(8)
但是,给农民带来方便的是在附近城市造成了严重破坏。

The smoke from thousands of fields mixes withthe pollution from millions of cars and trucks.(9)
来自数千个田地的烟雾与数百万辆汽车和卡车的污染混合在一起。

Those noxious clouds of smog make it hardto see during the day and hard to breathe.(10)
那些有害的烟雾云使得白天很难看见,也很难呼吸。

Sakshi Chauhan is recovering from a severethroat infection.(11)
Sakshi Chauhan正在从严重的喉咙感染中恢复。

SAKSHI CHAUHAN, India (through translator):I was told that I have an infection.(12)
印度SAKSHI CHAUHAN(通过翻译):有人告诉我我感染了病毒。

Because of this, I cannot eat anything fromoutside.(13)
因此,我不能从外面吃任何东西。

The doctor told me not to go out, told menot to go out because of smog.(14)
医生告诉我不要外出,告诉我不要因为烟雾而外出。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: The smoke is so thickthat, earlier this week, flights at New Delhi's(15)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:烟雾如此浓重,以至于本周早些时候在新德里

international airport were delayed or canceleddue to poor visibility.(16)
国际机场由于能见度差而被推迟或取消。

The city declared a public health emergency,restricted the number of cars allowed on the(17)
该市宣布发生公共卫生紧急情况,限制了允许的车辆数量

road, and ordered all construction work tostop.(18)
道路,并下令所有建筑工作停止。

MUKESH KUMAR, Construction Project Chief (throughtranslator): The pollution has risen to great(19)
建设项目负责人MUKESH KUMAR(通过翻译):污染已加剧

levels.(20)
水平。

Our company has halted construction sinceNovember 1.(21)
我们公司自11月1日起已停止施工。

We had it shut even before that.(22)
我们甚至在那之前就关闭了它。

We are following the official order.(23)
我们正在遵循官方命令。

We have stopped all work, and all the precautionsand initiatives are being taken to curb pollution(24)
我们已经停止了所有工作,并采取了所有预防措施和措施来抑制污染

here.(25)
这里。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Also contributing to therampant smog, plumes of smoke generated by(26)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:也造成了烟雾弥漫,

fireworks during the recent festival of Diwali,a celebration of light where, now, during(27)
在最近的排灯节节期间放烟花,这是为了庆祝光明,现在,

the day, there is less.(28)
那天,很少。

Weather and wind patterns are also blamedfor trapping pollutants over India's capital.(29)
人们还指责天气和风向将污染物捕集在印度首都上空。

Dirty fuels are the culprit from several sources.(30)
肮脏的燃料是多种来源的罪魁祸首。

Automobiles are the major one.(31)
汽车是主要的。

On average, 1,400 new vehicles are added toDelhi's streets every day, most now burning(32)
每天平均有1400辆新车被添加到德里的街道上,其中大部分现在都在燃烧

a highly polluting diesel long outlawed inEurope and the United States.(33)
长期以来在欧洲和美国都被禁止使用的高污染柴油。

By 2021, diesel fuel here will meet Europeanstandards.(34)
到2021年,这里的柴油将达到欧洲标准。

The government has also promised to shut downold coal-fired plants and restrict new ones.(35)
政府还承诺关闭老燃煤电厂,并限制新的燃煤电厂。

But pollution has been worsening for years.(36)
但是多年来污染一直在恶化。

Two years ago, to get an idea of how dirtythe air is, we went to one of the cleanest(37)
两年前,为了了解空气有多脏,我们选择了最干净的一个

places in Delhi, the American Embassy School.(38)
美国大使馆学校在德里的地方。

It serves the children of American and otherexpats and diplomats.(39)
它为美国及其他外籍人士和外交官的子女服务。

Many don face masks, but only until they'reinside.(40)
许多人戴上口罩,但要等到他们进入里面。

Ellen Stern was the school's director.(41)
艾伦·斯特恩(Ellen Stern)是学校的主任。

ELLEN STERN, Former Director, American EmbassySchool: We have an air system that goes all(42)
美国大使馆学校前任校长艾伦·斯特恩:我们的空气系统无处不在

the way through the school.(43)
通过学校的方式。

We now have four different kinds of filterson it that filter out various kinds of things.(44)
现在,我们可以使用四种不同的过滤器来过滤各种事物。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Barun Aggarwal showedme the elaborate system his company, BreatheEasy,(45)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:Barun Aggarwal向我展示了他的公司BreatheEasy精心设计的系统,

has set up in the school, pulling out thefirst layer of filter, thickly coated with(46)
在学校已经设置好,拉出第一层过滤器,用

a grimy soot.(47)
烟灰。

So, if you were to walk outside today, thisis what is coming into your lungs?(48)
那么,如果您今天要走到外面,这是肺里的什么?

BARUN AGGARWAL, BreatheEasy: Absolutely.(49)
BARUN AGGARWAL,呼吸轻松:绝对。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: The fine particle filtersalso show stark before-and-after evidence(50)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:微粒过滤器还显示出前后明显的证据

of the harmful air outside.(51)
外面的有害空气。

You would think such systems would be in strongdemand, but Aggarwal says, aside from a few(52)
您可能会认为对此类系统的需求量很大,但Aggarwal表示,除了少数几个

buildings mostly occupied by expats, its beena hard sell.(53)
建筑物大多被外国人占领,这是一个很难卖的东西。

Among India's growing middle-class, he says,there's denial or indifference, a sense that(54)
他说,在印度日益壮大的中产阶级中,有人否认或漠不关心,

pollution is the price of India's rapid economicprogress.(55)
污染是印度经济快速发展的代价。

BARUN AGGARWAL: The number of myths that arethere with regards to air pollution in India(56)
BARUN AGGARWAL:关于印度空气污染的神话有很多

are incredible.(57)
太不可思议了

The first one that I get by mostly Indiansis that, if I breathe clean air for eight(58)
我主要是印度人得到的第一个信号是,如果我呼吸了八个空气,

hours, then my immunity will come down, andwhen I go out, I will fall sick.(59)
几个小时,我的免疫力就会下降,出去时,我会生病。

Completely wrong, because this is -- if youbelieve that, then you should be giving your(60)
完全错误,因为这是-如果您相信,那么您应该付出

children two packets of cigarettes to smokeevery day.(61)
孩子们每天要抽两包烟。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Kamal Meattle is an environmentalactivist who also designed the embassy school's(62)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:Kamal Meattle是一位环保主义者,他还设计了大使馆学校的

filtration system.(63)
过滤系统。

It works well, he says, but it is no panaceafor a city of 20-plus million residents.(64)
他说,它运作良好,但对于拥有20亿以上居民的城市来说,这并不是万灵药。

KAMAL MEATTLE, Environmental Activist: Youcannot have just air purifiers and cleaning(65)
环保主义者KAMAL MEATTLE:您不能只拥有空气净化器和清洁剂

systems for the people who can afford them.(66)
负担得起的人的系统。

It has to be for the people who are on theroad, who are in (INAUDIBLE) or slums.(67)
它必须适合在路上,(听不清)或贫民窟中的人。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Meattle, who trained atMIT, has developed lower-cost ways to cope(68)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:经过MIT培训的Meattle已开发出低成本的方法来应对

with the pollution, plants, thousands of themin this rooftop greenhouse of his six-story(69)
在他六层楼的屋顶温室里,有污染,植物,成千上万的植物

office building.(70)
办公楼。

Clean air is produced, and each floor is pullingin the air as needed.(71)
产生干净的空气,并且每个地板都根据需要吸入空气。

KAMAL MEATTLE: And there are plants on eachfloor also.(72)
KAMAL MEATTLE:每层楼上也有植物。

This is a central air cleaning system forthe whole building.(73)
这是整个建筑物的中央空气净化系统。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Plants do more than produceoxygen, he says.(74)
弗雷德·德·萨姆·拉萨罗(FRED DE SAM LAZARO):他说,植物的作用不只是产生氧气。

They are natural air purifiers.(75)
它们是天然空气净化器。

Their roots eat bacteria and fungi and theyabsorb chemicals like formaldehyde and benzene(76)
它们的根食细菌和真菌,并且吸收甲醛和苯等化学物质

produced by office products.(77)
由办公产品生产。

KAMAL MEATTLE: Areca palms for the daytime,bamboo palm.(78)
KAMAL MEATTLE:白天的槟榔,竹棕榈。

FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Installing plants is asmall step people can take indoors, but he(79)
FRED DE SAM LAZARO:安装植物是人们在室内可以走的一小步,但是他

acknowledges there's a huge complex problemoutside these clean air bubbles, not easily(80)
承认在这些干净的气泡之外存在着巨大的复杂问题,这不容易

solved in India's chaotic democracy.(81)
解决了印度混乱的民主制度。

The Indian government says it's taken stepsto reduce pollution.(82)
印度政府表示已采取措施减少污染。

But, in the meantime, for years to come, India'scapital and, for that matter, most of its(83)
但是与此同时,在未来的几年中,印度的首都以及就此而言,其大部分

major cities will continue to be among themost difficult places on Earth to breathe.(84)
大城市将继续是地球上呼吸最困难的地方之一。

For the "PBS NewsHour," this is Fred de SamLazaro in New Delhi.(85)
对于“ PBS NewsHour”,这是新德里的Fred de Sam Lazaro。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Fred's reporting is a partnershipwith the Under-Told Stories Project at the(86)
朱迪·伍德鲁夫(JUDY WOODRUFF):弗雷德(Fred)的报道是与

University of St. Thomas in Minnesota.(87)
明尼苏达州圣托马斯大学。


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