How Abiy Ahmed's background helped him broker Nobel-winning peace
2019-10-11 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: Now to an inspiring story thatwon the Nobel Peace Prize.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:现在讲一个获得诺贝尔和平奖的鼓舞人心的故事。

In their official announcement today, theNobel Committee listed a series of accomplishments(2)
诺贝尔委员会今天在其官方公告中列出了一系列成就

for Ethiopia's Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed,all achieved in his first 100 days in office.(3)
埃塞俄比亚总理艾比·艾哈迈德(Abiy Ahmed)的任职,头100天都实现了这一目标。

Amna Nawaz has the story.(4)
Amna Nawaz有故事。

AMNA NAWAZ: That's right, Judy.(5)
AMNA NAWAZ:是的,Judy。

But his most significant accomplishment wasin making peace with neighboring Eritrea soon(6)
但是他最重要的成就是很快与邻国厄立特里亚实现了和平

after he became prime minister last April.(7)
去年四月就任总理之后。

The two countries had been at war for twodecades in a bitter border conflict that drove(8)
两国在激烈的边境冲突中战争已持续了二十年

hundreds of thousands of people into exileor internal displacement.(9)
成千上万人流亡或流离失所。

They now have diplomatic relations, and manyfamilies kept apart by war were reunited last(10)
他们现在有外交关系,许多因战争而分裂的家庭最后团聚了

year, after the first commercial flight betweenthe two nations in 20 years.(11)
一年之后,两国之间进行了20年来的首次商业飞行。

Now, Prime Minister Abiy has a doctorate degreein peacemaking and served as a U.N. peacekeeper(12)
现在,阿比(Abiy)总理拥有建立和平的博士学位,并担任过联合国维和人员

in Rwanda after the 1994 genocide.(13)
在1994年种族灭绝之后在卢旺达。

For more on who he is, I'm joined by SalihBooker.(14)
有关他是谁的更多信息,我将与Salih Booker一起加入。

He's the president and CEO of the Center forInternational Policy, and he served as director(15)
他是国际政策中心的总裁兼首席执行官,并担任过主任

of Africa studies at the Council on ForeignRelations.(16)
对外关系委员会的非洲研究。

Welcome back to the "NewsHour."(17)
欢迎回到“新闻时报”。

SALIH BOOKER, President and CEO, Center forInternational Policy: Thank you for having(18)
国际政策中心总裁兼首席执行官SALIH BOOKER:感谢您有

me.(19)
我。

AMNA NAWAZ: So, Prime Minister Abiy, he isjust 43 years old.(20)
AMNA NAWAZ:因此,总理阿比(Abiy)只有43岁。

Tell us about him.(21)
告诉我们关于他的事。

SALIH BOOKER: Well, he is the youngest headof state in any African country.(22)
萨利赫·布克(SALIH BOOKER):他是非洲任何国家中最年轻的国家元首。

He was the child of a mixed marriage, in religiousand ethnic terms.(23)
就宗教和种族而言,他是混血儿。

His father was a Muslim Oromo, his motheran Orthodox Christian Amhara.(24)
他的父亲是穆斯林奥罗莫人,母亲是东正教基督徒阿姆哈拉。

So, at a very young age, he learned the valueof tolerance and understanding across religious(25)
因此,他很小的时候就学会了宽容和理解宗教的价值

and ethnic divides and, later, socioeconomicdivides.(26)
种族差异,以及后来的社会经济差异。

He joined the rebellion against the autocraticMarxist regime as a teenager.(27)
十几岁时,他加入了反对专制马克思主义政权的叛乱。

And around the time of the fall of Mengistuin '91, he then became -- got formal training,(28)
到了91年孟吉斯图(Mengistu)倒台的那段时间,他成为了受过正式培训的人,

became a soldier in '93.(29)
在93年成为一名士兵。

And, of course, as you mentioned, he was servedas a U.N. peacekeeper in Rwanda after the(30)
而且,当然,正如您所提到的,他是卢旺达战争后的联合国维和人员

genocide.(31)
种族灭绝。

He did his first degree in Addis Ababa Universitywhile still with the military.(32)
他还在军队服役期间在亚的斯亚贝巴大学获得了第一学位。

Then he went to London, got an M.A., cameback, entered politics, but continued studying(33)
然后他去了伦敦,获得了文学硕士学位,回来了,参加了政治,但是继续学习

and eventually earned his Ph.D. only in 2017.(34)
并最终获得博士学位。仅在2017年。

And so his rise has been meteoric.(35)
因此,他的崛起一直是短暂的。

And he became prime minister only in Aprilof 2018.(36)
他直到2018年4月才出任总理。

AMNA NAWAZ: This conflict that he's now beingcredited with bringing about to some kind(37)
AMNA NAWAZ:这种冲突现在被认为是他带来了某种冲突

of peace accord, walk me through very basically,what's at the heart of that conflict between(38)
和平协议的基本内容,逐步引导我,

these two nations?(39)
这两个国家?

SALIH BOOKER: Well, the short history is thatEthiopia annexed Eritrea, which was a former(40)
萨利赫·布克(SALIH BOOKER):短暂的历史是埃塞俄比亚吞并了厄立特里亚,

Italian colony, in 1962.(41)
意大利殖民地,1962年。

And that began the beginning of a three-decadearmed struggle to topple first the monarchy(42)
这就开始了为推翻君主制而进行的三十年武装斗争的开始

of Emperor Haile Selassie and then the regimeof Mengistu followed Selassie.(43)
海勒·塞拉西皇帝的统治,然后孟吉斯图政权跟随塞拉西。

So when the Eritrean People's Liberation Front,along with the coalition of Ethiopian rebels,(44)
因此,当厄立特里亚人民解放阵线和埃塞俄比亚叛军联盟一起时,

toppled the Mengistu regime in '91, the Eritreanspushed for independence.(45)
厄立特里亚人于91年推翻孟吉斯图政权,争取独立。

They had a referendum backed by the U.N. in'93.(46)
他们在93年获得了联合国的全民投票。

And the vast majority voted for independence.(47)
绝大多数投票赞成独立。

The countries split, stayed on good terms,but, five years later, they were at war.(48)
两国分裂了,保持了良好的关系,但是五年后,他们处于战争状态。

And, at the time, people said, well, thisis a ridiculous war.(49)
而且,当时人们说,嗯,这是一场荒谬的战争。

It's the equivalent of two bald men fightingover a comb.(50)
这相当于两个秃头男人争着一把梳子。

It wasn't about strategic resources.(51)
这与战略资源无关。

It was very much about the egos and the nationalpride of these two leaders, who had been friends(52)
这与两位曾经是朋友的领导人的自负和民族自豪感息息相关。

and allies during the struggle, but who weretrying to assert who was going to be the primary(53)
和斗争中的盟友,但谁在试图断言谁将成为主要

new generation of African leaders.(54)
新一代非洲领导人。

AMNA NAWAZ: And these two nations sort ofstayed in this state of not really at war,(55)
玛娜·纳瓦兹(AMNA NAWAZ):这两个国家处于这种战争状态,

not really at peace.(56)
不太和平。

But with this peace accord that Prime MinisterAbiy was able to bring forward, it's not without(57)
但是有了阿比总理能够达成的和平协议,这并非没有

criticism, even with the prize today.(58)
批评,即使今天获奖。

Some people say, look, across the border inEritrea, there is still repression.(59)
有人说,看,厄立特里亚境内仍然存在镇压。

Does this Peace Prize come too early?(60)
这个和平奖来得太早了吗?

What do you think?(61)
你怎么看?

SALIH BOOKER: Well, I don't think it comestoo early.(62)
萨利赫·布克(SALIH BOOKER):好吧,我认为现在还为时过早。

And I think it's deserved and it's also aspirational,or to encourage the peace process; 100,000(63)
我认为这是当之无愧的,也是鼓舞人心的,或鼓励和平进程。 100,000

people died in the first two years of thatconflict, and then it was a cold war.(64)
人们在那场冲突的头两年死亡,然后是一场冷战。

But the stubbornness of both sides preventedany resolution.(65)
但是双方的固执阻碍了任何解决。

Prime Minister Abiy, within his first 100days, he traveled to Eritrea.(66)
总理阿比(Abiy)在头100天之内前往了厄立特里亚。

He accepted the rulings of the U.N.-backedcommission.(67)
他接受了联合国支持的委员会的裁决。

He returned territory to Eritrea, and creatingthis incredible peace and restoration of ties(68)
他将领土交还给厄立特里亚,并创造了这种难以置信的和平并恢复了联系

between these two countries.(69)
在这两个国家之间。

He cannot be held responsible for the internalreforms that need to happen in Eritrea.(70)
他不能对厄立特里亚需要进行的内部改革负责。

What he's done is removed the rationale forthe Eritrean government to continue its repressive(71)
他所做的一切都消除了厄立特里亚政府继续镇压的理由

and restrictive rule.(72)
和限制性规则。

The people of Eritrea are going to be demandingthe kind of reforms they see happening in(73)
厄立特里亚人民将要求他们看到的正在发生的改革

Ethiopia under Prime Minister Abiy right now.(74)
埃塞俄比亚现在由阿比总理接任。

AMNA NAWAZ: So, this hopefully leads to continuedpath towards more peace for both nations.(75)
阿玛·纳瓦兹(AMNA NAWAZ):因此,这有望为两国带来更多的和平。

SALIH BOOKER: Yes, indeed.(76)
萨利赫·布克:是的,的确如此。

AMNA NAWAZ: Salih Booker, always good to haveyou here.(77)
AMNA NAWAZ:Salih Booker,一直很高兴有您在这里。

Thank you.(78)
谢谢。

SALIH BOOKER: Thank you.(79)
萨利赫·布克(SALIH BOOKER):谢谢。


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