Diving into the Philippines' dangerous, underwater mines
2014-01-27 21:46:00

JUDY WOODRUFF: And finally tonight, we visit the Philippines, a country still reeling from a record typhoon in November.(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:最后今晚,我们旅行和菲律宾,国家仍然在 11 月的记录台风缫丝。

Just before it hit, photographer Larry C. Price traveled there to document the dangerous and sometimes deadly way some poor Filipinos are making a living.(2)
它在打之前,摄影师拉里 C.价格旅行那里文件的危险和有时致命的方式,有些可怜的菲律宾人谋生。

Hari Sreenivasan narrates our report, produced in partnership with the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting.(3)
Hari Sreenivasan 讲述我们的报告,生产的与上危机报道的普利策奖中心建立伙伴关系。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Near a remote village in the Eastern Philippines, at a small camp in the forest, a man bites down on a plastic tube, adjusts his mask and disappears into water as opaque as chocolate milk.(4)
HARI SREENIVASAN:一个偏远村庄的东部菲律宾,在森林里的一个小营地附近一个男人塑胶管上咬下来调整他的面具和入水一样不透明巧克力奶将消失。

Descending as deep as 40 feet, he breathes from a small diesel- powered air compressor on the surface, while blindly digging into the sides of a narrow tunnel.(5)
降序一样 40 英尺深,他呼吸从表面上看,小型柴油-动力空气压缩机而盲目地挖入边的一条狭窄的隧道。

For hours at a time, he fills bags with mud and rock that a partner hauls to the surface, where the sediment is broken down and, using mercury, panned for gold.(6)

According to Thomson Reuters, in 2012, the Philippines was the 18th largest producer of gold worldwide.(7)
据汤姆森路透社报道,在 2012 年,菲律宾是世界黄金 18 最大的生产商。

Large companies are responsible for much of that, but there are also unofficial small-scale mines like these.(8)

Many lie in the poor coastal province of Camarines Norte, about 200 miles Southeast of Manila, where some of the country's highest concentrations of the precious mineral can be found.(9)
很多谎言中差沿海省的北甘马粦,约 200 英里马尼拉东南,哪里可以找到一些国家的珍贵矿物的浓度最高。

But much of it is trapped in ore underwater. So-called compressor mining originated in this region of the Philippines as far back as the mid-1990s.(10)
但大部分都被困在水下的矿石。所谓压缩机挖掘起源于这一地区早在 20 世纪 90 年代中期在菲律宾。

The practice was inspired by fishermen, who used the motors to dive deep underwater to catch reef fish.(11)

But with the potential for engine breakdowns and tunnel collapses, it's an extremely dangerous venture, and one not limited to adults.(12)

Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer Larry C. Price traveled to the Philippines for the NewsHour in November.(13)
普利策获奖摄影师拉里 C.价格前往菲律宾的采访记在 11 月。

There, he spoke with 15-year old Elias Delima, who began diving when he was just 13. Delima told an interpreter that divers get double the take of the other miners, around $5 a day, and that's incentive enough.(14)
那里,与他交谈了 15 岁的埃利亚斯困境,开始潜水时他只是 13。困境说一名口译员,潜水员带双带其他矿工,周围 5 美元一天,这是足够的诱因。

QUESTION (through translator): Why do you do this? Why do you go into the hole and bring up the dirt?(15)
QUESTION (through translator):你为什么要这样做?你为什么入洞和带来的灰尘吗?

BOY (through translator): To get gold, to help my parents, and to have some money for myself.(16)
BOY (through translator):为我自己获得金牌,并帮助我的父母,有一些钱。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Dindo Leche (ph), now 25, said he began diving when he was 14. While he's no longer afraid, he says he knows the risks remain.(17)
HARI SREENIVASAN:丁多 Leche (ph 值),现在 25,说他开始潜水时他十四岁。虽然他已不再害怕,他说他知道保持的风险。

DINDO LECHE, Philippines (through translator): It's dangerous. Because we are extracting soil, the holes get wider and deeper. The soil loses natural strength.(18)
DINDO LECHE, Philippines (through translator):它是危险的。因为我们提取土壤,孔得到更加广泛和深入。土壤失去了自然的力量。

And it doesn't stick together and easily gives way. That is what we are on the lookout for underwater, so you do not get buried.(19)

QUESTION (through translator): Which is worse, when the compressor stops, or when the tunnel collapses?(20)
QUESTION (through translator):当压缩机停止时,或当隧道坍塌时,哪些是坏的?

DINDO LECHE (through translator): A tunnel collapse is more dangerous. But, often, those two happen at the same time. That is what is called your time to die.(21)
DINDO LECHE (through translator):隧道塌方是更危险的。但是,通常情况下,这两个发生在同一时间。这就所谓你死的时候。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Compressor mining was officially outlawed in the Philippines in 2012.(22)
HARI SREENIVASAN:压缩机挖掘正式被禁止了在菲律宾在 2012 年。

In January of that year, near the town of Paracale, an accident left at least three compressor miners dead. The site was shut down and quickly abandoned.(23)
在 1 月的那一年,帕拉卡莱镇附近意外离开至少三个压缩机矿工死了。该网站被关闭,并很快就放弃了。

Yet, with vast stretches of poor rural communities spread across some 7,100 islands, desperation is high and regulation is lacking.(24)
然而,与分布在 7,100 的一些小岛的贫困农村社区的大片,绝望是高和缺乏监管。

November's record typhoon caused billions of dollars of damage to the country.(25)
11 月的记录台风造成数十亿美元的该国遭到了破坏。

But it only stopped operations for one day in Mambulao Bay, where more than 400 work on some 40 floating bamboo encampments near the village of Santa Milagrosa.(26)
但是它只工作一天在 Mambulao 湾、 超过 400 工作一些 40 浮竹营地附近圣 Milagrosa 村的地方。

Miners here say they pay local police $11 a month per worker to look the other way. Many of those workers are children and adolescents.(27)
矿工们在这里说他们支付当地警察元 11 个月每个工人来看看另一条路。这些工人很多是儿童和青少年。

JULIE HALL, World Health Organization: There are three main risks from this type of practice.(28)
JULIE HALL, World Health Organization:有三个主要风险从这种类型的实践。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Julie Hall works with the World Health Organization in Manila.(29)
HARI SREENIVASAN:朱莉大厅工作与在马尼拉世界健康组织。

She says that in addition to the immediate life-threatening dangers posed by an engine failure or collapse, the conditions also pose longer-term health risks for children.(30)

One is the poor quality of air fed to the divers by the compressor engines.(31)

JULIE HALL: It's likely that that air that's sucked through the tube will be mixed with diesel fumes, with carbon monoxide, with other pollutants, because it's very close to the engine that's driving the compressor.(32)
JULIE HALL:很可能通过管吸那空气将混入柴油味,与一氧化碳与其他污染物,因为它是非常接近的驱动压缩机的引擎。

HARI SREENIVASAN: The second is the effects on the body at those depths underwater.(33)
HARI SREENIVASAN:第二是对在这种深度水下身体的影响。

JULIE HALL: The body's under a lot of pressure.(34)
JULIE HALL:正文下很大的压力。

Little gas bubbles can form in your bloodstream, and those gas bubbles can block off the blood supply to little bits of your brain or little bits of your lung.(35)

HARI SREENIVASAN: And a third is the poor quality of the water they're diving in, susceptible to bacteria and parasites.(36)
HARI SREENIVASAN:而第三个是他们潜水中,水的质量差易受细菌和寄生虫。

JULIE HALL: For somebody to be spending a lot of time breathing poor-quality air, under pressure, under the water, and exposed to all of these bacteria and other bugs in that dirty water, this clearly poses a significant health risk.(37)
JULIE HALL:别人要花很多时间呼吸的空气质量较差,在压力下下了水,, 和接触到的所有这些细菌和其他 bug 在脏水里的,这显然构成了严重的健康风险。

CARLOS CONDE, Human Rights Watch: When you're a poor family, the more -- the more people you can convince to work and contribute to the family income, obviously, the better.(38)
CARLOS CONDE, Human Rights Watch:当你越多 — — 一个贫穷的家庭,更多的人你能说服工作并作出贡献的家庭的收入,很明显,越好。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Carlos Conde works for Human Rights Watch in the Philippines. He says that parents are typically the ones pushing their children into this dangerous work.(39)
HARI SREENIVASAN:卡洛斯 · 康德为人权观察组织在菲律宾工作。他说父母通常的是他们的孩子推向这危险的工作。

CARLOS CONDE: Oftentimes, they don't consider, for instance, education for the kids.(40)
CARLOS CONDE:很多时候,他们不要考虑,例如,为孩子们的教育。

Although getting an education is a paramount concern for Filipino families, but, you know, particularly in the provinces, the really poor ones, it's just, you know, kids are seen as extra hands.(41)

HARI SREENIVASAN: Edlyn Ortiz is 12 years old. Girls like her typically don't dive. But they help with the panning and domestic chores that allow the family to work at the mine.(42)
HARI SREENIVASAN:Edlyn · 奥尔蒂斯是 12 岁。她那样的女孩通常别潜水。但他们帮摇摄和国内做家务,允许在煤矿工作的家庭。

She tells an interpreter that her family depends on her help.(43)

QUESTION (through translator): Why do you work in gold mining?(44)
QUESTION (through translator):你为什么工作在金矿开采?

GIRL (through translator): To earn money so we can have something to eat.(45)
GIRL (through translator):要赚到钱,所以我们可以去吃点东西。

QUESTION (through translator): What do you like better, going to school or working?(46)
QUESTION (through translator):你越好,我去上学或工作像什么?

GIRL (through translator): I want to keep going to school, and in the end, that's what will give us a better life.(47)
GIRL (through translator):我一直想要到学校,并在末端,那是会给我们更好的生活。

LAWRENCE JOHNSON, International Labor Organization: These children are mortgaging their future, not of themselves only, but also their families and their communities.(48)
LAWRENCE JOHNSON, International Labor Organization:这些儿童正在抵押他们的将来,不自己只,但也是他们的家庭和他们的社区。

HARI SREENIVASAN: Lawrence Johnson directs the efforts of the U.N.'s International Labor Organization in the Philippines. He agrees that schooling is key to breaking this cycle of child labor.(49)
HARI SREENIVASAN:劳伦斯 · 约翰逊指示,联合国国际劳工组织在菲律宾的努力。他同意教育是关键,打破这个周期的童工。

LAWRENCE JOHNSON: We see education as a way to help the next generation become more productive, to have a better quality of life.(50)
LAWRENCE JOHNSON:我们看到教育作为一种方式,帮助下一代变得更有成效,有更好的生活质量。

But it's also right now allowing for an environment where these parents can actually provide for their families, and not just go out and mine just enough today to survive.(51)

HARI SREENIVASAN: In a country with so many desperate challenges, even before the typhoon, Johnson says if people want to help stop this practice, they can start by being more conscientious consumers.(52)
HARI SREENIVASAN:在一个国家,那么多绝望的挑战,甚至之前,台风约翰逊说,是否人们想要帮助停止这种做法,他们可以通过更多有良知的消费者正在启动。

LAWRENCE JOHNSON: Whether we're talking gold or silver that we mine, it's a bulk commodity.(53)
LAWRENCE JOHNSON:无论我们谈论黄金或白银,我们矿,它是大宗商品。

So we ask consumers, are you sure that the ring you're wearing, the earring, the necklaces are free from child labor? That's more difficult, but it's up to consumers to start making that choice again.(54)
所以我们要问消费者,您确信戒指你穿、 耳环、 项链都是免费从童工劳动吗?这是更加困难,但它面向消费者开始选择再犯。

HARI SREENIVASAN: For now, the divers will continue to bear the risks, taking their dangerous plunges and grasping for gold.(55)
HARI SREENIVASAN:现在,潜水者将继续承担风险,同时考虑其危险的切入和把握黄金。

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