NASA scientists track climate-changing methane leaks from the air
2018-07-11 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: We heard in the last segmenta little about natural gas produced in the(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:我们在最后一节中听到了一些关于天然气产生的信息

U.S.(2)
我们

It turns out it is a big factor in the overallgrowth of energy production in this country(3)
事实证明,这是该国能源生产总体增长的一个重要因素

over the past decade.(4)
在过去的十年。

But producing and transporting that gas releasesmethane, a potent greenhouse gas that's gotten(5)
但生产和运输这种气体会释放甲烷,这是一种强效的温室气体

a lot less attention when it comes to climatechange.(6)
气候变化方面的关注度很低。

Miles O'Brien reports on how California iszeroing in on this issue(7)
Miles O'Brien报道了加利福尼亚如何在这个问题上进行调整

It's part of our weekly segment on the LeadingEdge of science, medicine and technology.(8)
它是我们科学,医学和技术前沿的每周部分的一部分。

MAN: This is Honor Rancho.(9)
男:这是Honor Rancho。

This is about 10 clicks north or so.(10)
北方左右大约10次点击。

MILES O'BRIEN: It's time for a preflight briefingat Burbank Airport.(11)
MILES O'BRIEN:现在是在伯班克机场进行飞行前简报的时候了。

MAN: We're going to get plenty of data overthe -- over the site.(12)
MAN:我们将通过网站获得大量数据。

MILES O'BRIEN: I'm flying with a team fromNASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.(13)
MILES O'BRIEN:我和美国宇航局的喷气推进实验室一起飞行。

A place that specializes in exploring distantplanets today is focused on our own.(14)
今天专门探索遥远星球的地方专注于我们自己的地方。

They're taking flight over Southern California,hunting one of the most potent greenhouse(15)
他们正在南加州飞行,寻找最强大的温室之一

gases of all, methane.(16)
所有气体,甲烷。

It accounts for one-fifth of the global warmingwe are experiencing now.(17)
它占我们现在正在经历的全球变暖的五分之一。

RILEY DUREN, Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Youcan't manage what you don't measure.(18)
RILEY DUREN,喷气推进实验室:你无法管理你不测量的东西。

MILES O'BRIEN: Riley Duren is the chief systemsengineer for JPL's Earth Science Directorate.(19)
MILES O'BRIEN:Riley Duren是JPL地球科学理事会的首席系统工程师。

He and technologist Andrew Thorpe are usinga state-of-the-art infrared imaging spectrometer(20)
他和技术专家Andrew Thorpe正在使用最先进的红外成像光谱仪

to find plumes of methane invisible to thehuman eye.(21)
找到人眼看不到的甲烷。

Nationally, the EPA estimates about one-thirdof methane emissions come from oil and gas(22)
在全国范围内,美国环保署估计约有三分之一的甲烷排放来自石油和天然气

production, another third from the methanecreated by the belches and manure of livestock,(23)
生产,另外三分之一是由牲畜的粪便和粪便产生的甲烷,

and about 16 percent from organic waste dumpedin landfills.(24)
大约16%来自垃圾填埋场倾倒的有机废物。

So, today, we are flying over fertile methaneterritory.(25)
所以,今天,我们正在飞越肥沃的甲烷领土。

There are 200,000 oil and gas wells, almost2,000 dairy farms and hundreds of landfills(26)
有20万个油气井,近2,000个奶牛场和数百个垃圾填埋场

in California.(27)
在加利福尼亚。

RILEY DUREN: Think of it as a baseline medicalexam.(28)
RILEY DUREN:将其视为基线体检。

No one has done the first methane assessmentof the state of California, and maybe this(29)
没有人对加利福尼亚州进行过第一次甲烷评估,也许就是这样

ought to happen every year.(30)
应该每年都会发生。

MILES O'BRIEN: California is funding the flightsto find and stop methane leaks.(31)
MILES O'BRIEN:加利福尼亚正在为寻找和阻止甲烷泄漏的航班提供资金。

There is good reason to focus on methane inthe fight against climate change.(32)
在抗击气候变化的斗争中,有充分的理由关注甲烷。

Lasting only a decade or so, it is shorter-livedthan carbon dioxide, which persists for a(33)
持续仅十年左右,它的寿命比二氧化碳短,后者持续存在

century or more.(34)
世纪或更长。

But during its lifespan, methane is about85 times more potent at trapping heat than(35)
但在其使用寿命期间,甲烷在捕获热量方面的效力大约为85倍

carbon dioxide.(36)
二氧化碳。

RILEY DUREN: What the state is trying to dois to get an initial assessment of how many(37)
RILEY DUREN:国家试图做的是初步评估多少

strong methane sources are there in the state,where they're located, how much are they emitting?(38)
该州有强大的甲烷来源,它们位于哪里,它们排放了多少?

MILES O'BRIEN: In 2016, researchers from Harvardused satellite and ground observations to(39)
MILES O'BRIEN:2016年,哈佛大学的研究人员使用卫星和地面观测资料

determine methane emissions steadily increasedin the past decade, and they concluded the(40)
确定甲烷排放在过去十年中稳步增加,并得出结论

EPA is underestimating methane leaks fromall sources by 30 to 50 percent.(41)
美国环保署低估了所有来源的甲烷泄漏率30%至50%。

More recently, the Environmental Defense Fundpublished a study in the journal "Science"(42)
最近,环境保护基金在“科学”杂志上发表了一项研究。

concluding the EPA is underestimating methaneleak in oil and gas production by about 60(43)
总结美国环保署低估了石油和天然气生产中的甲烷泄漏约60

percent.(44)
百分。

The first step to plugging these methane leaksis pinpointing them.(45)
堵塞这些甲烷泄漏的第一步是确定它们。

On flights like these, JPL is using the AirborneVisible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer, or(46)
在这些航班上,JPL正在使用机载可见光/红外成像光谱仪,或

AVIRIS, to do just that.(47)
AVIRIS,做到这一点。

It can detect gases by analyzing the spectrumof light transmitted by the atmosphere.(48)
它可以通过分析大气传输的光谱来检测气体。

The spectrum of methane is like a fingerprint.(49)
甲烷的光谱就像一个指纹。

Like every other gas, methane absorbs a uniqueslice of the full spectrum coming from the(50)
与其他所有气体一样,甲烷吸收了来自气体的全部光谱

sun.(51)
太阳。

RILEY DUREN: This is the most active producingpart of the state right now, is this county(52)
RILEY DUREN:这是该州目前最活跃的生产部分,就是这个县

that we're heading towards.(53)
我们正走向。

So, when you add it all up, there are literallymillions of potential emission sources in(54)
因此,当你把它全部添加起来时,其中有数百万个潜在的排放源

the area that we're mapping.(55)
我们正在绘制的区域。

MILES O'BRIEN: The AVIRIS team routinely shareswhat it learns with those emitters, including(56)
MILES O'BRIEN:AVIRIS团队经常分享它与那些发射器学到的东西,包括

the operators of the huge Sunshine Canyonlandfill in Los Angeles.(57)
洛杉矶巨大的阳光峡谷垃圾填埋场的运营商。

On an earlier flight, the team saw a hugeplume of methane billowing from areas where(58)
在早些时候的飞行中,该团队看到了巨大的甲烷从那些地区滚滚而来

the topsoil had been stripped away in advanceto make space for more dumping.(59)
表土已被提前剥离,以腾出空间进行更多倾倒。

So, the landfill changed its routine, keepingthe topsoil in place until just before the(60)
因此,垃圾填埋场改变了常规,将表土保持在原地之前

trash is dumped, greatly reducing methaneemissions.(61)
垃圾倾倒,大大减少甲烷排放。

AVIRIS was also deployed to capture imagesof a massive natural gas blowout.(62)
AVIRIS还被用于捕获大规模天然气井喷的图像。

It happened at a Southern California gas companystorage facility near Porter Ranch.(63)
它发生在Porter Ranch附近的南加州天然气公司储存设施。

It was captured on video using an infraredcamera as well.(64)
它也是使用红外摄像机拍摄的视频。

It began in October 2015 and lasted four months.(65)
它始于2015年10月,历时四个月。

Nearly 100,000 tons of methane were released,about 5 percent of the gas that SoCal delivers(66)
释放出近100,000吨甲烷,约占SoCal产量的5%

annually, the worst natural gas leak in U.S.history.(67)
每年,美国历史上最严重的天然气泄漏。

DEANNA HAINES, Southern California Gas Company:It was something that was disheartening for(68)
南加州天然气公司DEANNA HAINES:这令人沮丧

all of us.(69)
我们所有人

MILES O'BRIEN: Deanna Haines is director ofgas engineering for SoCal.(70)
MILES O'BRIEN:Deanna Haines是SoCal的天然气工程总监。

It is the largest gas distribution companyin the United States, maintaining over 100,000(71)
它是美国最大的天然气分销公司,维护量超过100,000

miles of gas mains.(72)
几英里的煤气总管。

DEANNA HAINES: It didn't negate all the goodthat we have been doing over the last decades(73)
DEANNA HAINES:它并没有否定我们过去几十年来所做的所有好事

to mitigate methane, but it certainly -- itdidn't feel great.(74)
减轻甲烷,但肯定 - 它感觉不太好。

MILES O'BRIEN: I met her at the training centerthey call Situation City.(75)
MILES O'BRIEN:我在训练中心遇到了她,他们称之为情境城。

Here, they practice maintenance and repairtechniques and test new technology.(76)
在这里,他们练习维护和修理技术并测试新技术。

The tried-and-true method for finding leaksis the human nose, which can detect the sulfur(77)
用于发现泄漏的经过验证的方法是人体鼻子,它可以检测硫磺

smell that the company adds to the odorlessmethane, also called natural gas.(78)
闻到该公司添加到无味甲烷,也称为天然气。

But they augment that with some technology,fixed sensors at strategic locations, a van(79)
但他们通过一些技术,战略位置的固定传感器,面包车来增强它

that can detect even very tiny amounts ofmethane, infrared cameras to inspect pipes,(80)
甚至可以检测到非常微量的甲烷,红外摄像机来检查管道,

and a drone outfitted with a small laser.(81)
还有一架装有小型激光器的无人机。

They say the priority is avoiding naturalgas explosions, and it is not cost-effective(82)
他们说优先考虑的是避免天然气爆炸,而且不划算

to fix every leak.(83)
解决每一次泄漏。

DEANNA HAINES: There are some leaks that it'sbeen either very difficult to go after, it(84)
DEANNA HAINES:有一些泄漏,要么很难追求,它

costs a lot of money to go after, but, moreimportantly, we need to prioritize safety(85)
这需要花费很多钱,但更重要的是,我们需要优先考虑安全问题

first.(86)
第一。

When we find leaks, we need to fix them ina reasonable amount of time.(87)
当我们发现泄漏时,我们需要在合理的时间内修复它们。

MILES O'BRIEN: In the aircraft, AVIRIS hasspotted methane leaks in SoCal pipelines that(88)
MILES O'BRIEN:在飞机上,AVIRIS发现了SoCal管道中的甲烷泄漏

the company has repaired, proof there is thevalue to this type of survey.(89)
公司已经修复,证明这类调查有价值。

But it is, after all, just a narrow snapshotof a global problem.(90)
但毕竟,这只是全球问题的一个狭隘的快照。

So the team is proposing a similar instrumentbe launched into space.(91)
因此,该团队正在提议将类似的仪器发射到太空。

They think methane mitigation is a good placeto start stemming greenhouse gasses.(92)
他们认为减少甲烷是开始遏制温室气体排放的好地方。

RILEY DUREN: CO2 emissions have to be addressed.(93)
RILEY DUREN:必须解决二氧化碳排放问题。

But CO2 emissions involve economy-wide processes.(94)
但二氧化碳排放涉及整个经济过程。

They involve our power generation, our transportation,like the airplane we're flying on right now.(95)
它们涉及我们的发电,我们的运输,就像我们现在飞行的飞机一样。

And those are going to require economy-wideshifts in technology.(96)
这些将需要整个经济的技术转变。

And it's happening, but it may take a longtime.(97)
它正在发生,但可能需要很长时间。

Methane in the meantime has potentially near-termclimate benefits over the next few decades.(98)
与此同时,甲烷在未来几十年内具有潜在的近期气候效益。

BARACK OBAMA, Former President of the UnitedStates: 2014 was the planet's warmest year(99)
巴拉克奥巴马,美国前总统:2014年是这个星球上最温暖的一年

on record.(100)
记录在案。

MILES O'BRIEN: During the Obama administration,regulators were enticed by that argument.(101)
MILES O'BRIEN:在奥巴马执政期间,监管机构被这一论点所吸引。

The Department of Interior and the EnvironmentalProtection Agency had imposed rules forcing(102)
内政部和环境保护局实施了强制规则

gas and oil producers to detect and repairmethane leaks.(103)
天然气和石油生产商检测和修复甲烷泄漏。

DONALD TRUMP, President of the United States:With today's executive action, I am taking(104)
唐纳德·特朗普,美国总统:随着今天的行政行动,我正在接受

historic steps to lift the restrictions onAmerican energy.(105)
解除对美国能源限制的历史性步骤。

MILES O'BRIEN: But the Trump administrationhas tried to reverse all of that, facing pressure(106)
MILES O'BRIEN:但特朗普政府试图扭转所有这一切,面临压力

from industry, which insists the regulationsimpose too great a financial burden.(107)
来自工业部门,该部门坚持认为这些规定会带来太大的经济负担。

But this might seem surprising.(108)
但这似乎令人惊讶。

It's just a little odd to me that a companywould just say, oh, I don't need even want(109)
对我来说,公司只会说,哦,我甚至不需要,这有点奇怪

to know how much of my product I'm losing.(110)
知道我失去了多少产品。

DEANNA HAINES: Yes, it seems odd to me too.(111)
DEANNA HAINES:是的,这对我来说似乎很奇怪。

It's like it's nonintuitive.(112)
这就像它不直观。

If you're in any business, you want to keepyour product intact.(113)
如果您从事任何业务,您希望保持产品的完整性。

You don't want to lose it.(114)
你不想失去它。

MILES O'BRIEN: Congress and the federal courtshave offered contradictory votes and rulings(115)
MILES O'BRIEN:国会和联邦法院提出了相互矛盾的投票和裁决

on the Obama era rules.(116)
关于奥巴马时代的规则。

The net effect, much of the regulations remainin place, for now.(117)
目前,净效应,大部分法规仍然存在。

But there is no scientific debate that reducingthe amount of methane in the atmosphere can(118)
但是没有科学争论可以减少大气中甲烷的含量

make a significant dent in greenhouse gases.(119)
对温室气体产生重大影响。

In the seemingly insurmountable fight againstclimate change, methane may be the low-hanging(120)
在看似无法克服的应对气候变化的斗争中,甲烷可能是低悬的

fruit.(121)
水果。

For the "PBS NewsHour," I'm Miles O'Brienin Burbank, California.(122)
对于“PBS NewsHour”,我是加州伯班克的Miles O'Brien。


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