Nobel Prize in Economics Recognizes 'Market Designers'
2012-10-19 20:36:47

From VOA Learning English, this is the Economics Report in Special English.(1)

This year, the Nobel Prize for economics recognizes two Americans for their work. Staffan Normark, Permanent Secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, made the announcement Monday.(2)
本年度诺贝尔经济学奖承认两个美国人为他们的工作。斯塔凡 · Normark,科学,瑞典皇家科学院常任秘书作 (星期一) 宣布。

“The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012 to Professor Alvin Roth at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA…And to Professor Lloyd S. Shapley at University of California Los Angeles.”(3)
"皇家瑞典科学院已决定奖瑞典银行瑞典央行在 2012 年内存阿尔弗雷德 · 诺贝尔经济学奖颁发给在美国马萨诸塞州剑桥、 哈佛大学教授阿尔罗斯......并在加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校教授劳埃德 S.夏普。"

Staffan Normark added the reason the two men won the prize.(4)
斯塔凡 · Normark 添加该两名男子奖的原因。

“For the theory of stable allocation and the practice of market design.”(5)

The Nobel Prize in economics is often awarded for discoveries in how markets work or how market actors behave. But Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley thought of ways to design markets.(6)
诺贝尔经济学奖往往被批发现市场的工作方式或市场参与者的行为方式。但阿尔文 · 罗斯与劳埃德 · 夏普思想设计市场的方法。

Per Krusell of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences explained it this way.(7)
皇家瑞典科学院 Krusell 每解释它通过这种方式。

“This year’s prize in economic sciences is about economic engineering. It’s about how to practically design certain markets so that they work well.”(8)

Lloyd Shapley worked with David Gale on a research project in the 1960s. It dealt with how to match up ten men and ten women in strong, successful marriages.(9)
劳埃德 · 夏普与大卫 · 戈尔合作研究项目在 1960 年代。它涉及如何匹配的十名男子和十个妇女在强、 成功的婚姻。

The two researchers developed an algorithm or mathematical formula. It provided a model suggesting a way that all those couples could be matched best.(10)

The algorithm did not do very much to solve anyone’s marriage issues. But it did suggest ways to understand some kinds of markets better.(11)

David Gale died a few years ago. Alvin Roth built on the work, although he and Lloyd Shapley did not work together. Mr. Roth recognized the value of the Gale-Shapley findings. And he applied it to real-life markets.(12)
大卫 · 戈尔几年前去世了。阿尔文 · 罗思建工作,虽然他和劳埃德 · 夏普没有不在一起工作。Roth 先生承认大风夏普调查结果的值。他将它应用到真实的市场。

These included markets where the normal supply and demand relationship does not work, and where payment is not used.(13)

These markets require matching market actors such as organ donors and recipients, or students with public schools.(14)

Mr. Roth’s work was also used to match new doctors with hospitals.(15)
Roth 先生工作还被用来匹配新与医院的医生。

The Royal Swedish Academy called the work of Mr. Roth and Mr. Shapley an outstanding example of economic engineering.(16)
瑞典皇家科学院称 Roth 先生和先生夏普的工作经济工程的典范。

Alvin Roth said market design is a new field and the prize may draw more attention to it.(17)
阿尔文 · 罗思说市场设计是一个新的字段和抽奖可能更多的重视。

"You know, my colleagues and I work in an area that we're calling 'market design', which is sort of a newish area of economics and I'm sure that when I get to class this morning my students will pay more attention."(18)
"你知道,我和我的同事们从事的领域我们称之为 '市场设计',这种山野区域经济学,我肯定班今早时候我的学生们将支付更多的关注。"

Alvin Roth and Lloyd Shapley will share the prize, which is worth over one million dollars.(19)
阿尔文 · 罗斯和劳埃德 · 夏普将分享奖,这是价值超过 100 万美金。

And that’s the Economics Report in Special English. I’m Mario Ritter.(20)
而这是在特别英语经济报道。我是马里奥 · 里特。

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