Eight Million People Now Being Treated for HIV
2012-08-22 02:58:20


BARBARA KLEIN: This is SCIENCE IN THE NEWS, in VOA Special English. I’m Barbara Klein.(1)
BARBARA KLEIN:这是科学新闻,美国之音特别英语。我是芭芭拉 · 克莱因。

MARIO RITTER: And I’m Mario Ritter. The nineteenth International AIDS Conference took place last month in Washington, DC.(2)
MARIO RITTER:而我是马里奥 · 里特尔。第十九届国际艾滋病会议上个月在华盛顿举行。

More than twenty thousand people attended the six-day event.(3)
超过 2 万人参加了此次为期六天。

Today, we tell about some of the latest developments in the fight against AIDS and HIV, the virus that causes the disease.(4)
今天,我们告诉对抗艾滋病和艾滋病毒的最新发展的一些病毒,导致这种疾病。

(MUSIC)
BARBARA KLEIN: More than eight million people around the world are now receiving antiretroviral drug therapy. That is a twenty percent increase over the past year.(5)
BARBARA KLEIN:世界各地的超过 800 万人正在接受抗逆转录病毒药物治疗。这是过去一年增加了 20%。

All those receiving the treatment have the human immunodeficiency virus, known as HIV.(6)
所有这些接受治疗有称为艾滋病毒的人类免疫缺陷病毒。

The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS released a report before the AIDS conference.(7)
关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病联合联合国计划公布艾滋病会议之前的一份报告。

The report is called “Together We Will End AIDS.” It says almost one point four million people were added to the number of people receiving treatment in last year alone.(8)
该报告被称为"一起我们将终结艾滋病。"它说,将近 100 万人被添加到接受治疗的仅去年一年的人数。

More than thirty-four million people are now living with HIV. The report says that is the largest number ever, because of the greater availability of life-saving drugs.(9)
现在有超过 3400 万人生活艾滋病毒感染者。报告说,这是有史以来人数最多因为挽救生命药物的更高的可用性。

But about two-point-five million people were newly-infected with the virus last year.(10)
但约二点五万人去年新感染的病毒。

MARIO RITTER: Michel Sidibe is the head of the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, also called UNAIDS.(11)
MARIO RITTER:米歇尔 · 西迪贝是关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病,也称为联合国艾滋病规划署联合联合国计划的负责人。

MICHEL SIDIBE: “I personally believe that it is a new era -- new era for treatment, new era for prevention. But it is also from my personal reading a beginning of a journey to getting to zero.”(12)
MICHEL SIDIBE:"我个人认为这是一个新的时代 — — 治疗、 预防的新时代的新时代。但它也是从我个人阅读入门为零之旅的开始。"

Michel Sidibe says the world is now in a time of shared responsibility, mutual accountability and global solidarity.(13)
米歇尔 · 西迪贝说,目前世界上在责任共的担、 相互问责和全球团结一致的时间。

He says those issues will influence the discussion about HIV/AIDS in the coming years.(14)
他说: 这些问题会影响到未来几年关于艾滋病毒/艾滋病的讨论。

International spending for the fight against HIV reached almost seventeen billion dollars last year. Mr. Sidibe says the money was spent effectively.(15)
抗击艾滋病毒的国际支出去年达到近 170 亿美元。西迪贝先生说,花的钱有效。

MICHEL SIDIBE: “We are talking more and more of cost- effectiveness, efficiency, reducing unit costs of producing any results.(16)
MICHEL SIDIBE:"我们说话更多和更多的成本-效益、 效率、 降低单位成本产生的任何结果。

We are trying to make sure that the framework, investment framework, we are using with the countries becomes smarter.”(17)
我们正在努力,以确保框架、 投资框架,我们正在使用的国家变得更聪明。"

BARBARA KLEIN: Many countries have greatly increased their own investment in fighting the disease.(18)
BARBARA KLEIN:许多国家大大增加自己在对抗疾病的投资。

Spending by individual countries is now greater than international spending for the first time.(19)
现在大于第一次国际消费支出由个别国家。

For example, South Africa spent two billion dollars last year in the fight against HIV/AIDS.(20)
例如,南非在防治艾滋病毒/艾滋病的斗争中去年花费 20 亿美金。

Much of the international aid for treatment, research and prevention comes from PEPFAR -- the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.(21)
很多治疗、 研究和预防国际援助来自剧烈 — — 总统的紧急计划艾滋病救济和防治艾滋病、 结核病和疟疾全球基金。

Eric Goosby is the United States’ Global AIDS Coordinator. He also leads PEPFAR.(22)
Eric Goosby 是美国的全球艾滋病协调员。他还领导剧烈。

ERIC GOOSBY: “Our resource allocation and prioritization -- shifts that over the last three years we have aggressively tried to institute in our PEPFAR programs -- have begun to show the fruit of that labor.(23)
ERIC GOOSBY:"我们的资源分配和优先次序 — — 转向,过去三年,我们积极尝试在我们的紧急计划研究所 — — 已经开始显示,劳动的果实。

Moving to high risk populations - targeting key populations -- to ensure that they are identified in a safe setting, in a safe space, to allow them to be entered and retained in care over time.”(24)
将移动到高危人群-针对关键人口 — — 以确保它们进行标识在安全设置中,在一个安全的空间,允许他们进入和随着时间的推移保留在护理中。"

PEPFAR works with national governments to create programs for their people.(25)
剧烈的工作与各国政府为本国人民创造的程序。

ERIC GOOSBY: “I think that the numbers that UNAIDS is presenting to the world reassure me that we are positioned to know, monitor and understand the data as it comes in.(26)
ERIC GOOSBY:"我认为的数字,艾滋病规划署向世界展示安慰我位于我们知道,监视并理解数据,当它。

And we have moved I think over the last few years to be much more nimble in our ability to reposition our programming.”(27)
我们有感动我觉得过去的几年,可以在我们的能力重新定位我们编程中得更灵活。

MARIO RITTER: But there is still much work to be done. UNAIDS says billions of dollars more will be needed for the fight against HIV/AIDS.(28)
MARIO RITTER:但仍有很多工作要做。联合国艾滋病规划署说更多的数十亿美元将所需的艾滋病毒/艾滋病的斗争。

The UN group says one point seven million people died from AIDS-related causes last year.(29)
联合国小组说,100 万人死于与艾滋病有关的原因最后一年。

That is twenty-four percent fewer deaths than in two thousand five, when the number of deaths was at its highest.(30)
这就是二十四 %2 千 5 年,死亡人数最高的时候比少死亡。

Tuberculosis -- or TB -- is the number one cause of death among people living with HIV. People suffering from HIV/AIDS have weakened natural defenses for fighting disease.(31)
肺结核 — — 或 TB--是艾滋病毒感染者死亡的头号原因。患艾滋病毒/艾滋病的人有削弱自然防御对抗疾病。

That increases their likelihood of getting TB.(32)
这会增加他们的获取结核的可能性。

BARBARA KLEIN: People between the ages of fifteen and twenty-four are responsible for forty percent of all new adult HIV infections. Most of those infections are among young women.(33)
BARBARA KLEIN:十五及二十四岁之间的人负责新成人艾滋病毒感染人数的 40%。这些感染的大多数是年轻妇女。

Studies have shown that many young people do not know how to prevent HIV infection.(34)
研究表明很多年轻人不知道如何预防艾滋病毒感染。

Many of those infected in parts of Asia and Eastern Europe do not have access to treatment. And infections are increasing among sex workers, men who have sex with men and users of intravenous drugs.(35)
许多在亚洲和东欧地区的感染者并没有获得治疗的机会。与感染性工作者、 男同性恋者男女的静脉注射毒品使用者越来越多。

But UNAIDS says efforts are continuing to have fifteen million people on treatment by twenty-fifteen. We have placed a link to the UN report on our website, voaspecialenglish.com.(36)
但联合国艾滋病规划署表示,正在继续努力二十十五对治疗有 1500 万人。我们对我们的网站,放到联合国报告链接 voaspecialenglish.com。

(MUSIC)
MARIO RITTER: The World Health Organization says developing countries need a full plan of action for treating HIV.(37)
MARIO RITTER:世界生组织说,治疗艾滋病毒,发展中国家需要一个全面的行动计划。

WHO officials say some groups of people are still unable to get the treatments they need.(38)
世卫组织官员说某些人群仍无法获得他们需要的治疗。

Studies have shown that antiretroviral drugs extend the lives of people infected with HIV. The drugs can also prevent infection.(39)
研究表明抗逆转录病毒药物延长艾滋病病毒感染者的生命。药物也可以防止感染。

This means countries may be able to slow the spread of AIDS. But some of those most in need of HIV treatment and prevention are unable to get them because of their social standing.(40)
这意味着国家也许能够减缓艾滋病的蔓延。但那些最需要治疗和预防艾滋病毒的一些不能让他们因为他们的社会地位。

Gottfried Hirnschall is the director of the World Health Organization’s HIV/AIDS Department.(41)
莱 Hirnschall 是世界生组织的艾滋病毒/艾滋病部主任。

GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL: “We’ve seen in many countries that there remains stigma against certain population groups.(42)
GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL:"我们已经看到在许多国家中仍然存在针对某些人口群体的耻辱。

And in some countries these behaviors of these groups are criminalized. Being a sex worker in many African countries is criminal behavior.(43)
并在一些国家中的这些组的这些行为都犯罪行为。在许多非洲国家中的性工作者是犯罪行为。

Being an MSN in some countries is criminalized and obviously injection drug use is.”(44)
被一些国家的 MSN 犯罪行为和注射药物使用的是很明显。

The expression MSN means men who have sex with men. These men are one of the groups most at risk of infection.(45)
MSN 指男性同性恋者。这些人是感染的最大风险的团体之一。

GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL: “We see barriers for these individuals to access services.(46)
GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL:"我们看到使这些个人能够访问服务的障碍。

And we obviously see that as a consequence in many places these groups have higher infection rates. They have higher mortality, etcetera.”(47)
我们明显地看到因此在很多地方这些群体有较高的感染率。他们有较高的死亡率,等等。

BARBARA KLEIN: Another part of the fight against HIV/AIDS is the question of when to start treatment.(48)
BARBARA KLEIN:与艾滋病毒/艾滋病作斗争的另一部分是何时开始治疗的问题。

In the early days of antiretrovirals, the drugs were usually given to people when the body’s defenses against disease had collapsed.(49)
在早期的抗逆转录病毒药物,药物是通常给人当人体的防御疾病已经坍塌。

A person’s health is measured by the CD4 count. That is the number of immune system cells a person has.(50)
一个人的健康被衡量的 CD4 计数。这就是人的免疫系统细胞的数量。

Dr. Hirnschall says, in recent years, doctors have suggested that people start on treatment much earlier.(51)
Hirnschall 博士说,近年来,医生建议人们开始治疗要早得多。

GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL: “If you start as soon as possible -- and that’s what’s happening now in the U.S. with the policy change that just took place -- you may have a benefit to the patient.(52)
GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL:"如果你 — — 尽快开始,这就是现在发生了什么美国的政策变化,只是用了地方 — — 你可能给病人的利益。

WHO now recommends initiation of treatment below a CD4 cell count of 350, which means that the immune system has already some signs of weakening, but that the patient is still not very sick yet.”(53)
世卫组织现在建议开始低于 cd4 细胞的 350,这意味着,免疫系统已经弱化,一些迹象,但病人仍不是病得很厉害还治疗。"

The WHO official says many infections could be avoided by giving treatment earlier.(54)
世卫组织官员表示,许多感染便可避免给予较早前的待遇。

MARIO RITTER: Two recent studies have confirmed the effectiveness of what is being called the “treatment as prevention” plan.(55)
MARIO RITTER:最近的两项研究已证实被称之为"作为预防治疗"计划的成效。

One study involved what researchers call discordant couples, where one person has HIV and the other does not.(56)
一项研究涉及的研究者们称之为刺耳的夫妇,其中一人有艾滋病毒和另一个没有。

The study found that drugs were ninety-six percent effective in preventing the spread of the virus.(57)
研究发现毒品是 96%有效地防止病毒的传播。

The second study showed the effectiveness of giving drugs to people who were not infected.(58)
第二次研究显示,不被病毒感染的人给药的有效性。

GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL: “Even if you give drugs prior to exposure - in other words to HIV-negative persons -- referred to as pre-exposure prophylaxis -- you may also protect this person from becoming infected.(59)
GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL:"即使你给药物先暴露-换句话说在艾滋病毒抗体阴性的人 — — 作预防性药物 — — 被称为您可能也保护此人受到感染。

So the whole field of the use of anti-retrovirals has become more and more exciting, but at the same time more complex.”(60)
所以将整个字段使用的抗逆转录病毒已变得更加令人兴奋,但同时也更复杂。

Dr. Hirnschall says it would cost more in the short-term to put more people on anti-retrovirals sooner -- probably billions more.(61)
博士 Hirnschall 说它会更在短期内,把更多的成本人抗逆转录病毒更快 — — 可能数十亿更多。

But he says, in the long-term, the cost will drop and lives will be saved.(62)
但他说,从长远来看,成本将会下降,生命将得到拯救。

GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL: “You will have quite impressive reductions of both mortality and new infections.(63)
GOTTFRIED HIRNSCHALL:"你将会有相当令人印象深刻减少死亡率和新的感染。

So we estimate over a period until twenty-twenty more than twelve million new infections could be averted and seven point four million deaths could be also averted.(64)
所以我们估计一段直到近视,才能避免超过 1200 万新感染者可能还避免了 700 万人死亡。

So in other words, yes, you need to invest. You need to frontload the resources, but you’re buying something for it.”(65)
所以换句话说,是的你需要投资。您需要到 frontload 资源,但你买的东西,它的"。

Dr. Hirnschall says the World Health Organization is writing rules to help developing countries care for and treat those most at risk of infection.(66)
Hirnschall 博士说,世界生组织编写规则来帮助照顾和治疗的感染风险最大的发展中国家。

(MUSIC)
BARBARA KLEIN: Two other studies found that anti-AIDS drugs may protect HIV-negative individuals against the deadly virus. The studies involved couples in Kenya and Uganda.(67)
BARBARA KLEIN:其他两个研究发现抗艾滋病药物可能保护艾滋病毒抗体阴性个人反对这种致命病毒。研究涉及在肯尼亚和乌干达的夫妇。

One partner was infected with HIV and the other was not.(68)
一方感染艾滋病毒和其他不是。

The testing lasted from two thousand eight to two thousand ten. The study showed a sixty-seven to seventy-five percent reduced risk of infection in the non-infected partner.(69)
检验持续了两个千八到两个十千个。研究表明中非感染合作伙伴六十七至 75%减少受感染的危险。

That was in comparison to those who took a placebo or harmless substance.(70)
这是与服用安慰剂或无害的物质。

However, a third study showed no difference in protection. Those tests involved women in Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania. The results were published in the New England Journal of Medicine.(71)
不过,第三个研究显示,在保护无差异。这些测试涉及的妇女在肯尼亚、 南非和坦桑尼亚。结果发表在新英格兰医学杂志 》 上。

(MUSIC)
MARIO RITTER: This SCIENCE IN THE NEWS was written by VOA reporter Joe De Capua. It was adapted into Special English and produced by Christopher Cruise. I’m Mario Ritter.(72)
MARIO RITTER:这个科学新闻是美国之音记者乔德卡普阿写的。它被改编成特别英语并制作克里斯托弗 · 克鲁斯。我是马里奥 · 里特尔。

BARBARA KLEIN: And I’m Barbara Klein. Join us again next week for more news about science in Special English on the Voice of America.(73)
BARBARA KLEIN:而我是芭芭拉 · 克莱因。加入对美国之音特别英语中的我们下周再次科学更多新闻。

Contributing: Joe De Capua(74)
Contributing:乔德卡普阿


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