NASA Scientists Still Dream of, and Plan for, Human Travel to Mars
2013-06-14 00:30:14

From VOA Learning English, this is As It Is.(1)

Welcome back. I’m Caty Weaver.(2)

On the show today, we look into the future of space exploration. The American space agency NASA has announced plans for a new effort to study the sun.(3)

And, NASA scientists are considering new technologies for a possible human trip to the planet Mars.(4)

Newly released information about space radiation means the trip needs to take less time than is currently possible.(5)

The American space agency is making final preparations for a project to study the sun.(6)

NASA scientists hope to observe the way solar material gathers energy and heats up as it moves through the sun’s lower atmosphere.(7)

Katherine Cole has more about the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph, also called IRIS.(8)
凯瑟琳 · 科尔有更多关于界面区域成像光谱仪,也称为虹膜。

The outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere, known as the corona, is thousands of times hotter than the surface of the sun.(9)
太阳,称为电晕、 外层是大气层的数千倍比太阳的表面热。

Solar material heats up as it rises through the inner atmosphere to the corona.(10)

Researchers want to know why this is. So they are preparing a mission to study what scientists call the sun’s “interface region.” This is the area between the corona and the sun’s photosphere.(11)

The energy and matter, called plasma, that flow through the interface region have a major effect on Earth. This area is the source of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. The radiation affects Earth’s climate.(12)

It also can influence the space environment near our planet. The energy that passes into the interface region is also responsible for solar wind.(13)

Scientists believe the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph can help them understand the process. IRIS is a small satellite that can perform complex solar observations.(14)

Alan Title is the IRIS lead investigator. He is based at Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Technology Center in California.(15)
艾伦标题是虹膜牵头调查员。他设在加利福尼亚州的洛克希德 · 马丁公司的高级技术中心。

“What we want to discover is what the basic physical processes are that transfer energy and material from the surface of the sun out to the outer atmosphere to the corona.(16)

And remember, the corona extends throughout the heliosphere. We live in the sun’s outer atmosphere.”(17)

IRIS will provide highly detailed images that will show even individual structures of energy as they stretch away from the sun.(18)

NASA officials say the images will be three to four times as detailed as those from the agency’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.(19)

IRIS will also provide spectra. Spectra measures different wavelengths of light at once.(20)

NASA says IRIS will observe temperatures extending from about 5,000 to 65,000 degrees Celsius. That number will rise to about ten million degrees during solar flares.(21)
美国国家航空航天局说虹膜将观察从大约 5000 扩展到 65,000 摄氏度的温度。在太阳耀斑期间,这一数字将上升到 1000 万度左右。

But, lead investigator Alan Title notes IRIS will keep a safe distance from the sun.(22)

“IRIS flies around the Earth so it only gets about 600 kilometers closer to the sun than here we are on Earth, and that’s only about 92 million miles away.(23)
"虹膜苍蝇绕着地球所以它只获取约 600 公里更接近太阳不是我们在地球上,在这里和那只是约 9200 万英里。

So it’s really not very much closer to the sun.”(24)

The IRIS mission is expected to last two years and cost more than 180 million dollars. But scientists say the solar explorer could keep going much longer.(25)
虹膜任务是预期将持续两年,费用超过 1 亿 8000 万美金。但科学家们说,太阳能资源管理器可能会持续更长的时间。

IRIS is set to launch on a Pegasus XL rocket from a military base in California on June 26. I’m Katherine Cole.(26)
虹膜是设置为 6 月 26 日在从加利福尼亚州的一个军事基地的飞马座 XL 火箭上发射。我是凯瑟琳 · 科尔。

Scientists, astronauts and space exploration fans have been dreaming about sending human beings to Mars for years.(27)
科学家、 宇航员和空间探索球迷一直都梦想年向火星发射人类。

The American space agency has plans to make it happen by the middle of the 2030s. Recently, new information about a danger linked to the trip got NASA searching for solutions. Christopher Cruise tells us more.(28)
美国航天局已计划让它发生的本世纪 30 年代中期。最近,链接到这次旅行的危险有关的新信息得到了美国国家航空航天局寻找解决办法。克里斯托弗 · 克鲁斯告诉我们更多。

NASA officials hope to send humans to Mars in about 20 years. But it is a goal that has technical and medical barriers.(29)

New findings published in the journal Science suggest that a trip to Mars could give travelers a greater risk of radiation than NASA permits.(30)
新的研究结果发表在科学 》 杂志建议去火星的旅程能给旅行比美国国家航空航天局允许的辐射风险更大。

Earlier research already has established that exposure to radiation increases a person’s risk of developing cancer.(31)

The radiation measurements noted in the Science report were from the spaceship that carried the Rover exploratory vehicle to Mars in 2011. An instrument on the vehicle has been recording radiation levels since it landed on the red planet.(32)
在科学报告中指出的辐射测量了从在 2011 年进行火星探索性车辆到火星的宇宙飞船。车上的仪器已录制辐射水平,因为它在这个红色星球着陆。

It found that the amount of radiation exposure was a large fraction of what is considered an acceptable limit over an astronaut’s lifetime.(33)

Cary Zeitlin is with the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. His team examined the radiation measures collected.(34)

This was done on the 253-day, 560 million kilometer trip to Mars.(35)
这是 5 亿 6000 万公里 253-天,出差到火星。

Cary Zeitlin says space travelers would face radiation exposure comparable to getting full body computed tomography x-rays every five to six days. He says the results are worrying.(36)
凯里泽特林说,太空旅行者将会面对辐射暴露到得到充分的身体可比计算层析 x 射线每隔五至六天。他说的结果是令人担忧。

“The concern is not so much any immediate effects on people, although those are possible, but long-term health effects like cancer, or damage to the central nervous system.”(37)

Humans traveling on a spacecraft to Mars would be exposed to two kinds of radiation. One is low-energy particles called Galactic Cosmic Rays, or GCRs.(38)
在航天器上旅行到火星的人类将遭受辐射两种。一是低能量粒子称为银河宇宙射线或 GCRs。

The other is solar particle radiation, which depends on sun spot activity.(39)

Mr. Zeitlin says improvements in protective equipment might help keep astronauts safe from the solar radiation. But he says the cosmic rays are a bigger problem.(40)

“They can typically go through several inches of solid matter shielding without being attenuated (reduced) very much. So astronauts in deep space will get a continuous low radiation dose.”(41)
"他们通常可以通过几个英寸的固体物质屏蔽不被很多减毒 (减少)。所以在太空中的宇航员会连续低辐射剂量"。

He and his team will continue to take radiation measurements as the rover Curiosity continues to explore. Researchers want a complete picture of the radiation risks involved in human travel to Mars.(42)

I’m Christopher Cruise.(43)
我是克里斯托弗 · 巡航。

NASA experts are considering these numbers on radiation levels in their early planning for a mission to Mars.(44)

Some scientists say the answer might be improvements in the driving force of spacecraft.(45)

They say new propulsion technologies are needed to shorten the time it takes to get to Mars. This would reduce the time a person is exposed to the radiation along the way.(46)

Chris Moore leads NASA’s advanced exploration systems program. He says engineers are working on systems that could cut a trip to Mars from 250 to 180 days.(47)
克里斯 · 摩尔带领美国航空航天局的高级的勘探系统程序。他说: 工程师正在系统上,可以削减,从 250 到火星旅行至 180 天。

Eddie Semones is a space flight radiation health officer for NASA. He says a trip to Mars would require higher speed and protective equipment elements.(48)
埃迪 Semones 是为美国航空航天局的太空飞行辐射  生主任。他说去火星的旅程将需要更高的速度和防护设备的元素。

But, he says the protection requires materials too heavy for a successful launch.(49)

And that’s As It Is for today. Thanks for joining us.(50)

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