NASA Scientists Still Dream of, and Plan for, Human Travel to Mars
2013-06-14 00:30:14


From VOA Learning English, this is As It Is.(1)
从美国之音英语学习,这是它是。

Welcome back. I’m Caty Weaver.(2)
欢迎回来。我维可。

On the show today, we look into the future of space exploration. The American space agency NASA has announced plans for a new effort to study the sun.(3)
上节目今天,我们看看未来的太空探索。美国航天局已宣布计划作出新的努力,研究太阳。

And, NASA scientists are considering new technologies for a possible human trip to the planet Mars.(4)
而且,美国航空航天局的科学家们正在考虑可能的人类旅行到火星上的新技术。

Newly released information about space radiation means the trip needs to take less time than is currently possible.(5)
空间辐射的新发布的信息意味着旅行需要采取比当前可能少的时间。

The American space agency is making final preparations for a project to study the sun.(6)
美国航天局正在做一个项目,研究太阳的最后的准备。

NASA scientists hope to observe the way solar material gathers energy and heats up as it moves through the sun’s lower atmosphere.(7)
美国国家航空航天局科学家希望观察太阳能材料收集能源和移动通过太阳的低层大气加热的方式。

Katherine Cole has more about the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph, also called IRIS.(8)
凯瑟琳 · 科尔有更多关于界面区域成像光谱仪,也称为虹膜。

The outer layer of the sun’s atmosphere, known as the corona, is thousands of times hotter than the surface of the sun.(9)
太阳,称为电晕、 外层是大气层的数千倍比太阳的表面热。

Solar material heats up as it rises through the inner atmosphere to the corona.(10)
太阳能材料加热,它通过内部气氛上升到日冕。

Researchers want to know why this is. So they are preparing a mission to study what scientists call the sun’s “interface region.” This is the area between the corona and the sun’s photosphere.(11)
研究人员想知道这是为什么。所以他们正在准备一个特派团研究科学家们称之为太阳的"接口区域"。这是日冕和太阳的光球之间的区域。

The energy and matter, called plasma, that flow through the interface region have a major effect on Earth. This area is the source of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. The radiation affects Earth’s climate.(12)
能量和物质,称为等离子体,通过该接口区域流有很大的影响,在地球上。这一领域是太阳的紫外线辐射的来源。辐射影响地球气候。

It also can influence the space environment near our planet. The energy that passes into the interface region is also responsible for solar wind.(13)
它也可以影响我们的星球附近的空间环境。此外负责太阳风的能量,将传递到该界面区域。

Scientists believe the Interface Regional Imaging Spectrograph can help them understand the process. IRIS is a small satellite that can perform complex solar observations.(14)
科学家们认为界面区域成像光谱仪可以帮助他们了解这一进程。虹膜是一个可以执行复杂的太阳观测的小卫星。

Alan Title is the IRIS lead investigator. He is based at Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Technology Center in California.(15)
艾伦标题是虹膜牵头调查员。他设在加利福尼亚州的洛克希德 · 马丁公司的高级技术中心。

“What we want to discover is what the basic physical processes are that transfer energy and material from the surface of the sun out to the outer atmosphere to the corona.(16)
"我们想要了解什么是基本的物理过程是什么,转移能源和材料表面的太阳出来到外层大气的日冕。

And remember, the corona extends throughout the heliosphere. We live in the sun’s outer atmosphere.”(17)
而且记住,日冕延伸整个日光层。我们生活在太阳的外层大气"。

IRIS will provide highly detailed images that will show even individual structures of energy as they stretch away from the sun.(18)
虹膜将提供非常详细的图像表明甚至各自的能源结构作为他们伸展离太阳。

NASA officials say the images will be three to four times as detailed as those from the agency’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.(19)
美国国家航空航天局官员说,图像将会详细为那些从该机构的太阳动力学观测站的三至四倍。

IRIS will also provide spectra. Spectra measures different wavelengths of light at once.(20)
虹膜还将提供光谱。光谱的措施不同波长的光一次。

NASA says IRIS will observe temperatures extending from about 5,000 to 65,000 degrees Celsius. That number will rise to about ten million degrees during solar flares.(21)
美国国家航空航天局说虹膜将观察从大约 5000 扩展到 65,000 摄氏度的温度。在太阳耀斑期间,这一数字将上升到 1000 万度左右。

But, lead investigator Alan Title notes IRIS will keep a safe distance from the sun.(22)
但是,调查负责人艾伦标题注意到虹膜将从太阳保持安全距离。

“IRIS flies around the Earth so it only gets about 600 kilometers closer to the sun than here we are on Earth, and that’s only about 92 million miles away.(23)
"虹膜苍蝇绕着地球所以它只获取约 600 公里更接近太阳不是我们在地球上,在这里和那只是约 9200 万英里。

So it’s really not very much closer to the sun.”(24)
所以它真的不是非常接近太阳"。

The IRIS mission is expected to last two years and cost more than 180 million dollars. But scientists say the solar explorer could keep going much longer.(25)
虹膜任务是预期将持续两年,费用超过 1 亿 8000 万美金。但科学家们说,太阳能资源管理器可能会持续更长的时间。

IRIS is set to launch on a Pegasus XL rocket from a military base in California on June 26. I’m Katherine Cole.(26)
虹膜是设置为 6 月 26 日在从加利福尼亚州的一个军事基地的飞马座 XL 火箭上发射。我是凯瑟琳 · 科尔。

Scientists, astronauts and space exploration fans have been dreaming about sending human beings to Mars for years.(27)
科学家、 宇航员和空间探索球迷一直都梦想年向火星发射人类。

The American space agency has plans to make it happen by the middle of the 2030s. Recently, new information about a danger linked to the trip got NASA searching for solutions. Christopher Cruise tells us more.(28)
美国航天局已计划让它发生的本世纪 30 年代中期。最近,链接到这次旅行的危险有关的新信息得到了美国国家航空航天局寻找解决办法。克里斯托弗 · 克鲁斯告诉我们更多。

NASA officials hope to send humans to Mars in about 20 years. But it is a goal that has technical and medical barriers.(29)
美国国家航空航天局官员希望在约二十年内将人类送火星。但它是一个目标,有技术和医疗上的障碍。

New findings published in the journal Science suggest that a trip to Mars could give travelers a greater risk of radiation than NASA permits.(30)
新的研究结果发表在科学 》 杂志建议去火星的旅程能给旅行比美国国家航空航天局允许的辐射风险更大。

Earlier research already has established that exposure to radiation increases a person’s risk of developing cancer.(31)
早期的研究已经设立了那暴露于辐射增加一个人患癌的风险。

The radiation measurements noted in the Science report were from the spaceship that carried the Rover exploratory vehicle to Mars in 2011. An instrument on the vehicle has been recording radiation levels since it landed on the red planet.(32)
在科学报告中指出的辐射测量了从在 2011 年进行火星探索性车辆到火星的宇宙飞船。车上的仪器已录制辐射水平,因为它在这个红色星球着陆。

It found that the amount of radiation exposure was a large fraction of what is considered an acceptable limit over an astronaut’s lifetime.(33)
它发现的辐射照射量是什么被认为可接受的限度,宇航员的生存期很大一部分。

Cary Zeitlin is with the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. His team examined the radiation measures collected.(34)
凯里泽特林是在德州圣安东尼奥西南研究所。他的团队审查收集到的辐射措施。

This was done on the 253-day, 560 million kilometer trip to Mars.(35)
这是 5 亿 6000 万公里 253-天,出差到火星。

Cary Zeitlin says space travelers would face radiation exposure comparable to getting full body computed tomography x-rays every five to six days. He says the results are worrying.(36)
凯里泽特林说,太空旅行者将会面对辐射暴露到得到充分的身体可比计算层析 x 射线每隔五至六天。他说的结果是令人担忧。

“The concern is not so much any immediate effects on people, although those are possible, but long-term health effects like cancer, or damage to the central nervous system.”(37)
"关注不是人,那么任何立即影响虽然那些是可能的但长期的健康影响像癌症或对中枢神经系统的损害"。

Humans traveling on a spacecraft to Mars would be exposed to two kinds of radiation. One is low-energy particles called Galactic Cosmic Rays, or GCRs.(38)
在航天器上旅行到火星的人类将遭受辐射两种。一是低能量粒子称为银河宇宙射线或 GCRs。

The other is solar particle radiation, which depends on sun spot activity.(39)
另一种是太阳粒子辐射,取决于太阳现场活动。

Mr. Zeitlin says improvements in protective equipment might help keep astronauts safe from the solar radiation. But he says the cosmic rays are a bigger problem.(40)
泽特林先生说的防护设备的改进可能会帮助保持宇航员安全从太阳辐射。但他说宇宙射线是更大的问题。

“They can typically go through several inches of solid matter shielding without being attenuated (reduced) very much. So astronauts in deep space will get a continuous low radiation dose.”(41)
"他们通常可以通过几个英寸的固体物质屏蔽不被很多减毒 (减少)。所以在太空中的宇航员会连续低辐射剂量"。

He and his team will continue to take radiation measurements as the rover Curiosity continues to explore. Researchers want a complete picture of the radiation risks involved in human travel to Mars.(42)
他和他的团队将继续以辐射测量为流浪者的好奇心继续探索。研究人员想要完整的辐射风险图所涉及的人类旅行到火星。

I’m Christopher Cruise.(43)
我是克里斯托弗 · 巡航。

NASA experts are considering these numbers on radiation levels in their early planning for a mission to Mars.(44)
美国国家航空航天局专家正在在其早期的火星任务规划中考虑这些数字的辐射水平。

Some scientists say the answer might be improvements in the driving force of spacecraft.(45)
一些科学家说,答案可能是改进的驱动力的航天器。

They say new propulsion technologies are needed to shorten the time it takes to get to Mars. This would reduce the time a person is exposed to the radiation along the way.(46)
他们说新的推进需要的技术,缩短的时间才能到达火星。这将减少一个人暴露于辐射一路上的时间。

Chris Moore leads NASA’s advanced exploration systems program. He says engineers are working on systems that could cut a trip to Mars from 250 to 180 days.(47)
克里斯 · 摩尔带领美国航空航天局的高级的勘探系统程序。他说: 工程师正在系统上,可以削减,从 250 到火星旅行至 180 天。

Eddie Semones is a space flight radiation health officer for NASA. He says a trip to Mars would require higher speed and protective equipment elements.(48)
埃迪 Semones 是为美国航空航天局的太空飞行辐射  生主任。他说去火星的旅程将需要更高的速度和防护设备的元素。

But, he says the protection requires materials too heavy for a successful launch.(49)
不过,他说,要保护需要材料太重成功发射。

And that’s As It Is for today. Thanks for joining us.(50)
并作为它就是今天的。谢谢你加入我们。


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