How English Evolved Into a Modern Language
2013-01-01 18:30:31


This is Steve Ember. And this is Shirley Griffith with the VOA Special English program, EXPLORATIONS. Today we present the second of our two programs about the history of the English Language.(1)
这是史帝文安博。而这是美国之音特别英语节目,探索与雪莉 · 格里菲斯。今天我们介绍我们两个程序对英语语言的历史第的二。

Last week, we told how the English language developed as a result of several invasions of Britain. The first involved three tribes called the Angles, the Jutes and the Saxons.(2)
上星期,我们告诉如何英语语言发展由于几个入侵英国。第一次涉及称为角度、 朱特人和撒克逊人的三个部落。

A mix of their languages produced a language called Anglo-Saxon, or Old English. It sounded very much like German.(3)
他们的语言的混合生产称为盎格鲁撒克逊,或旧英语语言。这听起来很像德国。

Only a few words remained from the Celts who had lived in Britain.(4)
只有几句话仍然从凯尔特人在英国居住了。

Two more invasions added words to Old English. The Vikings of Denmark, Norway and Sweden arrived in Britain more than one thousand years ago.(5)
两个更多入侵添加到旧英语单词。维京人的丹麦、 挪威和瑞典抵达英国一千多年前。

The next invasion took place in the year ten sixty-six. French forces from Normandy were led by a man known as William the Conqueror.(6)
下一步入侵发生在今年十百分之六十六。法国部队从诺曼底率领被称为征服者威廉的一名男子。

The Norman rulers added many words to English. The words “parliament,” “jury,” “justice,” and others that deal with law come from the Norman rulers.(7)
诺曼统治者添加到英语中很多单词。"议会,"字"陪审团"的"正义,"以及处理法的其他来自诺曼统治者。

Over time, the different languages combined to result in what English experts call Middle English. While Middle English still sounds similar to German, it also begins to sound like Modern English.(8)
随着时间推移,不同的语言结合起来导致什么英语专家呼吁中古英语。虽然中东英语听上去仍类似于德国,它也开始像现代英语的声音。

Here Warren Scheer reads the very beginning of Geoffrey Chaucer’s great poem, “The Canterbury Tales” as it was written in Middle English.(9)
在这里沃伦 Scheer 读取杰弗里 · 乔叟的伟大的诗篇 《 坎特伯雷故事 》 一开始,它是以中古英语编写的。

Chaucer wrote that poem in the late thirteen hundreds. It was written in the language of the people.(10)
乔叟晚十三数百人写这首诗。它是在人的语言写的。

The rulers of Britain at that time still spoke the Norman French they brought with them in ten sixty-six.(11)
在当时的英国统治者仍说他们带来了中十个有六十六诺曼法语。

The kings of Britain did not speak the language of the people until the early fourteen hundreds. Slowly, Norman French was used less and less until it disappeared.(12)
不列颠国王没有说话直到早期的十四个几百人的语言。慢慢地,直到它消失诺曼法语是少用。

The English language was strongly influenced by an event that took place more than one thousand four hundred years ago.(13)
英语语言超过一百个一千四年前发生的事件受到了强烈的影响。

In the year five ninety-seven, the Roman Catholic Church began its attempt to make Christianity the religion of Britain.(14)
五九十七年,罗马天主教会开始尝试使基督教的英国宗教。

The language of the Catholic Church was Latin. Latin was not spoken as a language in any country at that time. But it was still used by some people.(15)
天主教会的语言是拉丁文。拉丁美洲不当时,作为一种语言中的任何国家发言。但有些人仍使用它了。

Latin made it possible for a church member from Rome to speak to a church member from Britain. Educated people from different countries could communicate using Latin.(16)
拉丁美洲使得教会成员从罗马从英国到教会成员发言。受过教育的人来自不同的国家可以使用拉丁文进行通信。

Latin had a great affect on the English language. Here are a few examples.(17)
拉丁美洲对英语语言产生了极大的影响。这里是几个例子。

The Latin word “discus” became several words in English including “disk,” “dish,” and “desk.” The Latin word “quietus” became the English word “quiet.” Some English names of plants such as ginger and trees such as cedar come from Latin. So do some medical words such as cancer.(18)
拉丁字"铁饼"成为英文包括"磁盘,""菜,"几个字和"办公桌"。拉丁文词"quietus"成了英文单词"安静"的。有些植物如生姜和雪松等树木的英文名字来自拉丁文。所以做一些医学词汇如癌症。

English is a little like a living thing that continues to grow. English began to grow more quickly when William Caxton returned to Britain in the year fourteen seventy-six.(19)
英语是有点像一个活的东西,在继续增长。英语开始变得更快当 William Caxton 十四-七十六年回到英国。

He had been in Holland and other areas of Europe where he had learned printing. He returned to Britain with the first printing press.(20)
他曾在荷兰和欧洲他在哪里学印刷的其他领域。他第一次印刷回到英国。

The printing press made it possible for almost anyone to buy a book. It helped spread education and the English language.(21)
印刷机使几乎任何人都要买一本书。它帮助传播教育和英语语言。

Slowly, during the fifteen hundreds English became the modern language we would recognize.(22)
慢慢地,在十五期间数百个英语成为我们会认识到的现代语言。

English speakers today would be able to communicate with English speakers in the last part of the Sixteenth Century.(23)
今天讲英语的人将能够在十六世纪的最后一部分与讲英语的人进行通信。

It was during this time period that the greatest writer in English produced his work. His name was William Shakespeare.(24)
正是在这段期间在英语中最伟大的作家产生他的工作。他的名字是威廉 · 莎士比亚。

His plays continue to be printed, acted in theaters, and seen in motion pictures almost four hundred years after his death.(25)
他的戏剧继续打印、 在影剧院、 采取行动和动作图片中看到将近四百年后他的死亡。

Experts say that Shakespeare’s work was written to be performed on the stage, not to be read.(26)
专家说莎士比亚的工作写要执行在舞台上,不能被理解。

Yet every sound of his words can produce word pictures, and provide feelings of anger, fear, and laughter.(27)
尚未每个声音的他的话可以制作出的单词图片,并提供感情的愤怒、 恐惧和笑声。

Shakespeare’s famous play “Romeo and Juliet” is so sad that people cry when they see this famous story.(28)
莎士比亚的名剧 《 罗密欧与朱丽叶 》 是如此的悲伤人们哭泣,当他们看到这个著名的故事。

The story of the power hungry King Richard the Third is another very popular play by Shakespeare. Listen as Shep O’Neal reads the beginning, of “Richard the Third.”(29)
故事理查德国王权力饥饿者的第三个是另一个非常流行部莎士比亚的剧作。听为学校健康教育方案奥尼尔读取时开始,"理查德第三"。

The development of the English language took a giant step just nine years before the death of William Shakespeare.(30)
英语语言的发展迈出了巨人的威廉 · 莎士比亚去世之前只是九年。

Three small British ships crossed the Atlantic Ocean in sixteen-oh-seven. They landed in an area that would later become the southern American state of Virginia.(31)
三只小英国船越过大西洋中十六哦七。他们登陆后将会成为美国南部的弗吉尼亚州的面积。

They began the first of several British colonies. The name of the first small colony was Jamestown.(32)
他们开始了几个英属殖民地的第一。第一次小中的名称是蚁群的詹姆斯敦。

In time, people in these new colonies began to call areas of their new land by words borrowed from the native people they found living there.(33)
年时间,在这些新的殖民地人民开始调用他们新的土地,由从本机人民他们发现生活在那里借来的词的领域。

For example, many of the great rivers in the United States are taken from American Indian words. The Mississippi, the Tennessee, the Missouri are examples.(34)
例如,在美国大江大河的很多取自美洲印第安语。密西西比州、 田纳西州、 密苏里州是例子。

Other Native American words included “moccasin”, the kind of shoe made of animal skin that Indians wore on their feet.(35)
其他美洲原住民的词包括"皮靴",这种鞋做成的印第安人在他们的脚穿着的动物皮肤。

This borrowing or adding of foreign words to English was a way of expanding the language. The names of three days of the week are good examples of this.(36)
这种借贷或的外语单词添加到英语是扩大语言的途径。三天的这一周的名称是最好的例子。

The people from Northern Europe honored three gods with a special day each week. The gods were Odin, Thor and Freya.(37)
从欧洲北部人荣幸地与一个特殊的日子每周的三个神。神是奥丁、 多尔和弗雷亚。

Odin’s-day became Wednesday in English, Thor’s-day became Thursday and Freya’s-day became Friday.(38)
奥丁的天成为周三在英语、 雷神的天成为星期四和弗雷亚的天成为星期五。

Britain had other colonies in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and India. The English language also became part of these colonies.(39)
英国已在非洲、 亚洲、 加勒比地区和印度其他殖民地。英语语言也成为这些殖民地的一部分。

These colonies are now independent, but English still is one of the languages spoken. And the English language grew as words from the native languages were added.(40)
这些殖民地现在是独立的但英语仍是讲的语言之一。英语语言随着添加本机语言中的单词。

For example, the word “shampoo” for soap for the hair came from India. “Banana” is believed to be from Africa.(41)
例如,soap 头发的"洗发水"一词来自印度。"香蕉"据说是来自非洲。

Experts cannot explain many English words.(42)
专家不能解释很多英语单词。

For hundreds of years, a dog was called a “hound.” The word is still used but not as commonly as the word “dog.” Experts do not know where the word “dog” came from or when. English speakers just started using it.(43)
几百年来,一只狗被称为"猎犬"。这个词是仍然使用,但不是作为常用的单词"狗"。"狗"一词从何而来,或时不知道专家。讲英语的人刚开始使用它。

Other words whose origins are unknown include “fun,” “bad,” and “big.”(44)
其起源是未知其他词包括"乐趣"、"坏,"和"大"。

English speakers also continue to invent new words by linking old words together.(45)
讲英语的人还继续发明新的单词的旧词联系起来。

A good example is the words “motor” and “hotel.” Many years ago someone linked them together into the word “motel.” A motel is a small hotel near a road where people travelling in cars can stay for the night.(46)
一个好的例子是单词"电机"和"旅馆"。很多年前有人联系在一起到 word"汽车旅馆"。一家汽车旅馆是在汽车行驶的人可以留下过夜路附近的一家小旅馆。

Other words come from the first letters of names of groups or devices.(47)
其他的词来自组或设备名称的首字母。

A device to find objects that cannot be seen called Radio Detecting and Ranging became “Radar.” The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is usually called NATO.(48)
要查找对象,不能看到的设备称为无线电探测和测距成了"雷达"。北大西洋公约组织通常称为北约。

Experts say that English has more words that explain the same thing that any other language.(49)
专家说英语中任何其他语言有更多的单词,解释同样的事情。

For example, the words “large,” “huge,” “vast,” “massive,” and “enormous” all mean something really “big.”(50)
例如,字"大,""巨大,""巨大"、"大规模"、"巨大"都意味着东西真的"大"。

People often ask how many words there are in the English language. Well, no one really knows. The Oxford English Dictionary lists about six hundred fifteen thousand words.(51)
人们经常问有多少单词是英语语言中。嗯,没有人真的知道。牛津英语词典列出约 61 万 5000 字。

Yet the many scientific words not in the dictionary could increase the number to almost one million.(52)
尚未不在词典中的许多科学词汇可能增加到近 100 万。

And experts are never really sure how to count English words. For example, the word “mouse.” A mouse is a small creature from the rodent family.(53)
专家们从来没有真正确定如何进行计数的英语单词。例如,word"鼠标"。鼠标是从啮齿动物家族的小生物。

But “mouse” has another very different meaning. A “mouse” is also a hand-held device used to help control a computer.(54)
但是"鼠标"了另一个非常不同的意义。"鼠标"也是用来帮助控制计算机的手持设备。

If you are counting words do you count “mouse” two times?(55)
如果要统计单词做你数"鼠标"两倍吗?

Visitors to the Voice of America hear people speaking more than forty different languages. Most broadcasters at VOA come from countries where these languages are spoken.(56)
游客对美国之音听到四十多个不同语言的人们。大多数在美国之音的广播商来自讲这些语言的国家。

International organizations such as VOA would find it impossible to operate without a second language all the people speak.(57)
美国之音等国际组织会认为不可能无第二语言的情况下运作所有人讲。

The language that permits VOA to work is English. It is not unusual to see someone from the Mandarin Service talking to someone from the Urdu Service, both speaking English.(58)
允许美国之音工作使用的语言是英语。不是不寻常,看到有人从浅到有人从乌尔都语服务,这两个讲英语的普通话服务。

English is becoming the common language of millions of people worldwide, helping speakers of many different languages communicate.(59)
英语正在成为全世界数百万人的通用语言,帮助发言者的许多不同的语言沟通。


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