How a 1959 Discovery Is Saving Premature Babies Today
2012-07-11 14:14:16

This is the VOA Special English Health Report.(1)

We told you last week about a study which found that more than ten percent of all babies worldwide are born too early. One common problem in preterm babies is respiratory disease.(2)
我们告诉你上周的一项研究发现超过 10%的全世界所有婴儿出生时太早。早产婴儿中的一个共同问题是呼吸系统疾病。

The lungs are the last organs to develop. But a medicine called surfactant can save babies struggling to breathe.(3)

The story of this lifesaving medicine begins with a discovery in nineteen fifty-nine by a researcher named Mary Ellen Avery.(4)
这种救命药的故事在 7:59 下午被命名为玛丽.艾伦 Avery 研究员始发现。

She told this story in two thousand five to Children's News at Children's Hospital Boston, where she was the first woman to serve as physician-in-chief.(5)

She had been doing research at the Harvard School of Public Health.(6)

She was asked to find out more about the foam that forms in the lungs of people with a condition called pulmonary edema. At night she worked in a hospital delivery room.(7)

She saw many premature babies with hyaline membrane disease, now called respiratory distress syndrome.(8)

She examined the lungs of babies who had died. She found there was no air in their lungs, and she discovered why.(9)

In her words, "The material that was important -- the foam -- was missing, and they were struggling to re-inflate their lungs.(10)
用她的话说,' 重要的 — — 泡沫 — — 失踪了,并且他们挣扎着出现其肺部的材料。

Nature put this foam, or surfactant, in the lung to lower surface tension. You cannot keep air spaces inflated without it."(11)
自然放这种泡沫或表面活性剂、 低表面张力肺。你不能没有它膨胀的空气空间。 '

Babies usually develop this coating while they are in the womb, but many premature babies do not.(12)

Finally, in nineteen eighty, a Japanese pediatrician, Tetsuro Fujiwara, published a study about an artificial surfactant. It could be given to a baby and, within minutes, the baby could breathe.(13)

The medical community had taken years to accept Dr. Avery's discovery. But she said in a Harvard Medical School interview in nineteen eighty-two that she never gave up.(14)
在医疗社区采取了年接受博士 Avery 发现。但她说她永远不会放弃的十九个八十两的哈佛大学医学院采访中。

MARY ELLEN AVERY: "Hanging in there is key, I think. Knowing what you want to do and not being easily discouraged is key, particularly in research.(15)
MARY ELLEN AVERY:' 挂在那里是关键,我想。知道你想要做什么和不容易气馁是关键,尤其是在研究中。

You know, you're always moving into the unknown.(16)

And you can spend months trying to prove something, only to find that you made some terrible mistakes and you have to be willing to say 'six months of my life and my hard work went down the drain,' and you have to start over -- that's terrible discouragement."(17)
你可以花几个月试图证明的东西,只是为了找你犯了可怕的错误和你得心甘情愿地说 '我的生活和我的努力工作的六个月流水,',你要从头开始 — — 这是可怕的沮丧。 '

Dr. Anne Hansen in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Children's Hospital Boston remembers the first time she heard about Dr. Avery.(18)
安妮 · 汉森博士在新生儿重症监护病房在波士顿儿童医院还记得第一次她听说博士 Avery。

It was in nineteen ninety, when the government was in the process of approving an early surfactant called Exosurf.(19)
它是在十九岁九十,当政府审批称为 Exosurf 早期表面活性剂的过程中。

ANNE HANSEN: "And the attending [doctor] who I was on with said, 'When you're on call tonight, if there's a baby who's born who's premature, you should watch very closely the natural history of that disease,(20)
ANNE HANSEN:' 和出席 [医生] 谁我在说,' 当你叫今晚,如果有一个婴儿出生是是言之过早,你应该密切注视这种病,自然史

because this is the last night before we're going to start giving Exosurf to all our preterm babies, so this will be your last chance ever in your life to see what a preterm baby does when they don't receive Exosurf.(21)
因为这是之前我们现在就要开始 Exosurf 给我们所有的早产婴儿的最后一夜,所以这将是你最后一次机会永远在你的生活中看到一个早产的婴儿什么时候他们不会收到 Exosurf。

 And then he told me the whole story of Dr. Avery and her discoveries."(22)
然后他告诉我的博士艾利和她发现整个故事。 '

Mary Ellen Avery was eighty-four years old when she died last December fourth.(23)
玛丽 · 埃伦 Avery 八十四岁那年当她死于去年 12 月第四次。

And that's the VOA Special English Health Report. I'm Jim Tedder.(24)

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