Sex Matters for Sleeping Sickness Microbes
2014-01-10 11:37:37


Scientists are keeping a close eye on the mating habits of microscopic organisms, including those that cause African sleeping sickness.(1)
科学家们正在上交配习性的微生物,包括那些那原因非洲昏睡病保持密切关注。

They say what happens between two parasites can have major consequences for humans.(2)
他们说会发生什么之间两种寄生虫能对人类造成严重后果。

Researcher Wendy Gibson said when it comes to single-cell parasites known as trypanosomes, sex matters.(3)
研究员温迪 · 吉布森说: 当它来到单细胞寄生虫称为锥虫,性事项。

They had once been thought to reproduce by splitting in half. But scientists say they have a sex life.(4)
他们曾被以为重现的裂成两半。但科学家们说,他们的性生活。

“This is important because if they can mate, it means that they can swap genes around.(5)
"这很重要因为如果他们可以交配,这意味着他们可以交换周围的基因。

For example, if you’ve got a strain of parasite that’s resistant to a drug and it mates with one that isn’t, then it can swap that gene into the one that’s sensitive to the drug.(6)
例如,如果你有一株是寄生虫的耐药和队友在一起,不是寄生虫的,然后它可以将这样的基因交换成对药物敏感的一个。

And then, of course, you’ve got a new parasite, effectively, that is also resistant to the drug. That’s dangerous,” she said.(7)
然后,当然,你有一种新的寄生虫,有效,这也是到药物耐药。这是危险,"她说。

Gibson is professor of protozoology at the University of Bristol.(8)
吉布森是在布里斯托尔大学的原生动物学教授。

“Sleeping sickness is a very nasty disease. It’s carried by tsetse flies in tropical Africa.(9)
"昏睡病是一种非常讨厌的疾病。它是通过采采蝇在热带非洲运载了。

And now, fortunately, the numbers, as recorded by the World Health Organization, have dropped to less than 10,000 recorded cases.(10)
现在,幸运的是,数字,所记录的世界健康组织,已下降到少于 1 万的记录箱。

But years ago it used to really devastate large populations,” she said.(11)
但几年前它用于真的摧毁大量的人口,"她说。

She explained how the illness got its name.(12)
她解释说病症的名字。

“It’s called sleeping sickness because the parasite gets into the brain and causes people to go into a sort of semi-comatose state.(13)
"它被称为昏睡病因为寄生虫进入大脑获取和使人进入一种半昏迷的状态。

So that they just appear to be sleeping all the time. And that stage of the disease you can only treat with some very unpleasant drugs. One of them is based on arsenic.(14)
这样,他们只是出现在睡觉所有的时间。这种疾病的这一阶段你只可以与一些非常令人不快的药物治疗。其中之一基于砷。

So you can imagine that that doesn’t do you any good”(15)
所以你可以想象那不你任何好处"

Sleeping sickness has been on the decline due to early diagnosis, thorough treatment and better control of the tsetse fly population. That’s good news.(16)
昏睡病一直在下滑,因为早期诊断、 彻底治疗和采采蝇人口更好的控制。这是好消息。

But Gibson said that a resurgence is always possible.(17)
但吉布森说: 总是可能死灰复燃。

“A colleague once described sleeping sickness to me as the sleeping dragon. It never goes away because the problem is that there are animal reservoirs of the disease.(18)
"一位同事曾经描述昏睡病对我作为沉睡的巨龙。它永远不会消失因为问题是这种疾病的动物宿主。

So even if you haven’t got humans with the disease in an area, it may still be circulating in animals, for example, cattle or wild animals.(19)
所以即使你没人有这种疾病在一个地区,它可能仍会在流通的动物,例如,牛或野生动物。

And of course the tsetse fly is feeding on those in keeping that cycle of transmission going.(20)
当然蝇喂养对那些在周期的传输会的保持。

And it may then, if you’re unlucky, transfer back into the human population,” she said.(21)
它可能然后,如果你运气不好,传输回入人口,"她说。

Gibson said it’s important to understand sexual reproduction in microbes.(22)
吉布森说: 这是重要的是要了解微生物在有性繁殖。

“It’s one of the reasons why we’re worried about the next influenza outbreak because influenza is caused by viruses, but they also recombine.(23)
"这是为什么我们很担心下一次流感爆发因为流行性感冒由病毒引起的但他们还重组的原因之一。

OK, it’s not the same sexual reproduction process as we get in these parasites, but it’s the same intrinsic mechanism that you’ve got recombination of genes.(24)
好的但不是同样的有性生殖过程我们得在这些寄生虫,但那是你有基因重组的相同的内在机制。

And, of course, with flu, you get new recombinant strains. We don’t know how virulent they are and what kind of disease they’ll cause and how quickly they’ll spread.”(25)
而且,当然,有流感,你得到新的重组菌株。我们不知道他们是如何恶毒和他们会有什么样的疾病和他们会多快的速度传播。

The study of mating microbes helps explain how diseases spread and how new strains are formed. That’s why what’s happening in Uganda is being closely watched.(26)
形成了交配的微生物有助于解释疾病如何传播和如何新毒株的研究。这就是为什么发生在乌干达受到密切关注。

“You’ve got in the north of the country the West African form of the disease and in the southeast you’ve got the East African form.(27)
"你在这个国家的北部非洲西部种疾病和你在东南有东非洲的窗体。

The East African form has been spreading northwards. And one of the worries is that it will overlap with the West African form of the disease.(28)
非洲东部的窗体已经开始向北蔓延。忧虑之一就是它将与这一疾病的非洲西部形式重叠。

Now, if those two parasites then mate together, obviously, we’re worried that they’ll create some sort of superbug that maybe cause more serious disease,” said Gibson.(29)
吉布森说: 现在,是否那些两个寄生虫然后交配在一起,很明显,我们担心他们将会创造某种超级细菌也许会导致更严重的疾病"。

Trypanosomes are part of a group of organisms known as protozoa.(30)
锥虫是一组称为原生动物的有机体的一部分。

They also include microbes that cause such illnesses as leishmaniasis, which affects internal organs – giardiasis, an intestinal disorder – and trichomoniasis, which is a sexually transmitted disease.(31)
它们还包括导致这种疾病作为利什曼病影响内部器官 — — 鞭毛虫病、 肠道紊乱 — — 和滴虫病,这是一种性传播疾病的微生物。


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