Is the distinction between migrant and refugee meaningful?
2019-11-18 00:00:00


AMNA NAWAZ: In September, the Trump administrationproposed an annual refugee cap of 18,000 people(1)
AMNA NAWAZ:9月,特朗普政府提议将每年的难民上限设定为18,000人

for the year 2020.(2)
2020年。

That's down from the low of 30,000 refugeesthis year.(3)
这比今年的30,000名难民的低点有所下降。

But what makes someone a refugee and anotherperson a migrant?(4)
但是,是什么使某人成为难民而另一个人成为移民呢?

Tonight, writer Dina Nayeri offers her HumbleOpinion on that important difference.(5)
今晚,作家狄娜·纳耶里(Dina Nayeri)就这一重要差异发表了拙见。

DINA NAYERI, Author, "The Ungrateful Refugee:What Immigrants Never Tell You": In 1989,(6)
DINA NAYERI,作者:“流离失所的难民:移民从不告诉你什么”:1989年,

when I was 10, I arrived in Oklahoma as arefugee.(7)
我十岁的时候,我是作为难民来到俄克拉荷马州的。

In Iran, my mother had been threatened withexecution for converting to Christianity,(8)
在伊朗,我母亲因had依基督教而受到处决的威胁,

so we were recognized as political dissidentsand granted asylum.(9)
因此我们被公认为政治异见人士并获得了庇护。

According to American law, refugees are entitledasylum because they have suffered persecution(10)
根据美国法律,难民因遭受迫害而有权获得庇护

and face future danger, whereas economic migrantsmust prove their merit.(11)
并面临未来的危险,而经济移民必须证明自己的优点。

The difference between these two groups mayseem obvious, danger to one's life, but, in(12)
这两类人之间的差异似乎很明显,危及生命,但是,

practice, it is anything but.(13)
实践,什么都没有。

When you apply for asylum, either at the borderor in an embassy, often before you have had(14)
当您在边境或使馆申请庇护时,通常是在您之前

legal advice, you're given what's called acredible fear assessment.(15)
法律建议,您会得到所谓的可信恐惧评估。

Let's say you're from Central America anda gang demanded money from you.(16)
假设您来自中美洲,一个团伙要求您付款。

You refused, and they threatened to kill you.(17)
您拒绝了,他们威胁要杀死您。

Naturally, you fled.(18)
自然地,你逃跑了。

At the U.S. border, the officer will ask forthe specific reason that you refused the gang.(19)
在美国边境,该官员将询问您拒绝该团伙的具体原因。

The truth is there are many reasons you didn'tpay.(20)
事实是,您没有付款的原因有很多。

You don't have the money.(21)
你没有钱。

It stinks to face extortion every day.(22)
每天都要面对勒索。

But if you happen to say to the officer, "BecauseI didn't have the money," then you don't qualify(23)
但是,如果您碰巧对军官说:“因为我没有钱”,那么您就没有资格

for refugee status.(24)
难民身份。

But if instead you say, "Because I don't believegangs should be running my country," that(25)
但是,如果相反,您说:“因为我不相信帮派将统治我的国家,”

would make you a refugee.(26)
会让你成为难民

Why?(27)
为什么?

Because you have a well-founded fear of futurepersecution based on your political opinion,(28)
由于您根据自己的政治观点有充分的理由担心将来会遭受迫害,

that the country shouldn't be run by gangs.(29)
那个国家不应该被帮派统治。

Think about that for a minute.(30)
考虑一下。

If you testify that the gang said, "We willkill you, you cheapskate," you're just a migrant.(31)
如果您证明该团伙说:“我们会杀了您,您这小子,”您只是移民。

If you say they said, "We will kill you, youtraitor," you're a refugee.(32)
如果您说他们说:“叛徒,我们会杀了您,”您是难民。

Seems arbitrary, doesn't it, to hang an entireperson's fate on the gangster's insult of(33)
将整个人的命运挂在黑帮的侮辱上似乎是武断的,不是吗?

choice?(34)
选择?

I come from a family of doctors and scholars.(35)
我来自一个医生和学者的家庭。

When we had our asylum interview, we knewthat our Christianity was the central question.(36)
当我们接受庇护采访时,我们知道基督教是中心问题。

If my mother had been less educated aboutwhat she shouldn't say, she might have wept(37)
如果我的母亲对她不该说的话少受了教育,她可能哭了

about her marriage or a lack of money afterwe escaped Iran.(38)
关于她的婚姻或我们逃离伊朗后缺乏钱的问题。

If she had, would our asylum have been denied?(39)
如果她有,我们的庇护会被拒绝吗?

Would I be a writer now, or a frustrated housewifeforced to live under a head scarf?(40)
我现在是作家,还是沮丧的家庭主妇被迫住在头巾下面?

I'd like to believe that would have been awaste.(41)
我想相信那会是浪费。

So here's my question: How meaningful is thedistinction between migrant and refugee?(42)
所以这是我的问题:移民与难民之间的区别有多有意义?

Is this really a useful way to decide howmuch people have suffered and what care and(43)
这真的是一种有用的方法来确定遭受了多少痛苦以及受到何种护理和

protection we owe to our fellow man?(44)
我们对同伴的保护?

And how exactly do you define a life in danger?(45)
您如何精确地定义处于危险中的生命?

If a life is sure to be wasted in poverty,without education, opportunity, or purpose,(46)
如果一定要在没有教育,机会或目标的情况下浪费生活,

isn't that a kind of danger too?(47)
那不是一种危险吗?


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